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best solar inverter for home in chennai - Bells Road best solar inverter for home in chennai - Chepauk best solar inverter for home in chennai - K.H. 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Nagar best solar inverter for home in chennai - Tondiarpet High Road best solar inverter for home in chennai - Tambaram, K.K.Nagar best solar inverter for home in chennai - Ramasamy Salai best solar inverter for home in chennai - Anna Nagar best solar inverter for home in chennai - Thiruninravur. Product Descriptions Luminous Solar is a powerful hybrid inverter with 30 Amp inbuilt charge Controller. It is India's most intelligent solar system which gives priority to solar power use to save on electricity bills. The Solar Inverter charges the battery from grid and Solar panel both. If Sun energy is available then It charges the battery from solar Panel and if Solar is not available, then the inverter charges the battery from Mains/Grid. It can charge the battery and supply solar power to connected load if solar generation is sufficient otherwise it gives first priority to solar battery charging and then supply additional power to connected loads. Key Features- First of its kind Home UPS that delivers both AC & DC output Up to 600 Watt PV Module solar panel compatibility Intelligent fuzzy logic technology hepls in saving of electricity from 1.5 to 3 unit a day. Pure Sine wave output provides better performance & safety to the output load. Product Descriptions Key Feature Solar hybrid Inverter with inbuilt 30 amp PWM Charge controller Running Load 3 CFL, 3 Tube light, 3 Ceiling Fan, 1 Television Battery Support All Brands & All Types Battery System Single battery / 12V Weight 12 Kg. Dimension in CM 37 * 31 *13 Technical Details Wave Type Pure Sine Wave Rated Capcity 850 VA Voltage Windwo (eco mode): 100 V – 290V Voltage window (UPS mode) 180V – 260 V Full Battery Recharge Time 10-12 Hrs Charge Controller Rating 30 Amp/ 12V DC Load Output 12 V upto 20 Amp Protection Overload, deep discharge, short-circuit, Battery low cut off Additional Features Battery Selection Type – Tubular/ Flat / Gel or VLRA Charging selection type – Intelligent charging / Normal Charging Voltage regulation mode – Eco / UPS Inverter reset key - Yes Display Mains available - yes Battery Charging through Mains - yes Battery Charging through Solar Panel – yes Voltage regulation display – yes Power savings - yes Load output through Battery - yes Low Battery Indication – yes Overload Indication – yes Recommendations Solar Panel Solar Panel wattage = Daily Power requirement / (Average Sunlight hours in a day * efficiency of the system) Let’s say, daily power requirement = 500 Watt /hour Average sunlight hour = 5 hrs Efficiency of the system = 35% Now the solar panel wattage requirement = 500 Wh / (5 hrs*0.35) = 300 Watt Battery 12V / (135 Ah – 180Ah) Everything you need to know before purchasing a Solar home inverter system Sujith 10/12/2013 8 SHARES Share on FacebookTweet on Twitter In Indian scenario if you are planning to install Home Solar energy plant to save your electricity bill, then you are doing a big blunder. It’s better to invest that amount in a good mutual fund or as a long term fixed deposit, you will be able to pay the electricity bill with the return/interest from that amount. However if you are in a place where power failure is more frequent then it’s a good option First and foremost thing before going for a Solar power plant is the knowledge about your load. Don’t think about running Electric motors, Refrigerators, Air conditioners etc in a Solar power plant. However if you want a completely off the grid solution for multiple reasons, can go for high capacity plants (2 KW to 5 KW) . In normal domestic usage consider the light loads like Fan, TV, Music Systems, Lights etc. More the number of appliances less the backup time, hence it is better to keep the appliances minimum and tap the maximum backup time from the plant. DC Only Solar Energy System. For a small family I personally suggest DC Only Solar system. As the name suggests in this system all appliances are directly working on DC. Before going for such a system, you must take care of your requirements. Here if we take only the Lights and Fans (The most essential load), the system will be more economical. If your requirement is to run one or two fans and two to three lights, then go for this system. A complete DC Solar energy system in this setup will cost you only Rs 25, 000 to 35, 000 including the cost of Battery, DC Fans and Lights. Here the main advantage is you can completely avoid inverter and the energy loss due to the energy conversion. However if you want to run your TV, Music system and other appliances forget about this and go for the inverter based solar power plant. SOLAR INVERTERS Solar inverters are the heart of a solar plant. It is very much important to know the basic features and specifications of a Solar inverter. Capacity: Capacity of the inverter is the maximum load that you can be connected with the inverter. For example if the capacity of a Solar inverter is 1 Kilowatt, you can connect maximum 1 KW load to that inverter. 1 Kilowatt is considered sufficient for average home usage. If money permits, you can go upto 2KW also, anything beyond that for home usage won’t be economical. Output: Don’t compromise on the output waveform of the inverters. It must be Sine wave. Fortunately most of the leading solar inverter firms are supplying sine wave inverters only in solar segment. Other features: Unlike normal inverters, solar inverters have many unique features to make it more energy efficient and to tap the maximum benefits from the solar panels. Maximum Solar energy benefit: Solar inverters charge battery bank with the power output from Solar panels during daytime. A typical 1 Kilowatt Home solar power plant takes five to six hours for charging the battery. If you are not completely drain out the battery during night time, it will take much less time to charge the battery full during the next day. Once the battery gets fully charged in one or two hours, in normal solar inverters rest of the useful solar energy will be wasted. In some solar inverters once the battery is fully charged, the power conditioning circuitry automatically cut the mains supply and Solar Panel battery combination will power the devices through inverter. Here during daytime effective and full utilization of solar power can be achieved. Metering: Apart from the battery charging status, power on/off, battery low, mains on/off indications, modern solar inverters are incorporated with energy meters which logs the energy usage from solar panels/mains, net daily/monthly energy usage etc. Programmable Controls: Modern solar inverters facilitates programmable energy control system. Here you can effectively decide what energy should be used when. How solar inverters differ from normal inverters? Inverter portion of both solar an normal inverters are same. In solar inverters the additional part is solar charge controller and associated switching circuits. Apart from the battery terminals solar inverters have two additional terminals to connect solar panels of suitable rating. Whenever sufficient sunlight is available, the output from solar panel will be utilized for charging the battery, which can brings down your electricity bill. image Is it possible to convert a normal inverter to a solar inverter? Yes, you can convert a normal inverter to a Solar inverter. Several firms are offering Solar Charge Controllers along with Automatic Transfer Switch which can couple the Solar panels with your existing inverter and battery. You just need to connect the Device as per the connection details. image When sufficient output available from Solar panels to charge the battery, it will be sensed by the intelligent automatic transfer switch and routed to battery. In this time mains supply will not be utilized for charging purpose. Whenever the solar output falls below the rated voltage, mains input from inverter will be used for battery charging. What is grid tied solar inverters? Grid tied inverters are coupled to main utility grid. Here the DC output from solar panel is converted to AC and coupled with the grid through a special type of energy meter known as Netmeter. Unlike normal energy meters, net meters are bi-directional. Here the solar energy is used as a supplement to the grid power. Grid tied inverters convert the DC power input from Solar panels to AC and feed the same to utility grid through Netmeter. If your solar panel is generating more energy than your domestic requirement, the excess energy will be credited to the grid, means you can sell the energy to the utility grid. Here grid tied inverters can not be used as a backup device as in the case of off line inverters. When mains grid power fails, as a safety measure inverter will not generate electricity. A circuit senses the power failure and cut off the inverter from main grid . This avoid risk to the line workers. In India you can’t use these type of inverters because the grid system is not yet modified for this. Pros and Cons of Grid tied inverter Less maintenance as not battery or charging circuits are used. Bring down your electricity bill by feeding the excess power to grid. Cons Can’t be used as a backup to main supply. Can’t use everywhere. Utility grid of the country must support these type of inverters. What is a solar- wind hybrid inverter? Solar- Wind hybrid inverters have separate input terminals to tap the energy from wind turbine and Solar panels. Charge controllers and regulators of Solar and wind turbines are different, hence separate charge controllers, regulators and associated switching circuits work as a bridge. Can I use solar panel output directly to run devices? Yes, you can run the equipment like fans, LED lights, pumps etc directly without using battery, but as the output of Solar panels are not steady due to clouds, bad weather etc, it’s not advisable to run the appliances which require stable voltage. However with suitable regulators, you can very easily run low power devices. Solar pumps works directly on the direct input from Solar panels. Solar pump is a combination of a DC motor and a centrifugal pump. Solar submersible pump sets are also available. Solar pump sets are extremely useful where Grid power supply is not accessible. In India a typical 1 HP , 500 W input 24 volt solar pumpset costs 35000 to 40000 without the cost of Solar panel and fittings. A complete set can cost around Rs 1 Lakh. These pump set can deliver around 1500 liters of water per hour on sunny days. Power requirements and Solar Panel Selection Here the deciding factor is your average monthly/yearly energy consumption. It can be very easily calculated by using your one year’s electricity bill. Your winter and summer electricity requirements considerably varies hence the average electricity usage of of the whole year can give a fair usage value. If your average monthly usage is 150 Units, then the daily usage is 150/30 = 5 Units or 5 KWh, means at an average you need 5 Kilo Watt hour energy. Now you have to calculate the size (wattage) of the Solar panels required to meet this energy requirement. Here one thing you must keep in mind that, distribution or availability of solar energy is depends on the geographical locations. The usable hours of solar energy available varies from point to point. Isolation map indicates the average monthly/yearly availability of usable sunlight . Here see the Solar Resources map indicates average annual sunlight hours available across various places in India (prepared by Ministry of New and Renewable Energy – Govt of India ) image From the map let’s take an average value of 5 sunlight hours per day. Now we can use the formula Solar panel Wattage = Daily Power requirement / (Average Sunlight Hours x Efficiency of the system) In our case daily power requirement = 5 KWh Average Sunlight Hours = 5 hrs Efficiency of the system = say 80% = 0.8 (Here the conversion losses of inverters, solar charge controllers, battery and wiring are taken ) Now The solar panel wattage requirement = 5/(5×0.8)= 1.25Kilo Watts Per day. This indicates you need 1.25 KW solar panels to meet your complete energy requirements. Solar panels are available in different Wattage/Voltage combinations. Normally low wattage panels (Upto 100Watts) comes with 12 Volt output and High Wattage panels comes with 24 Volts output. If your inverter is above 1 KV, naturally the input battery requirement will be 24 Volts or 48 Volts. In the above quoted example you can use Six to Seven 200 Watts Solar panels are required to generate 1.25 KW power for your complete energy requirement. Solar panels wiring You won’t get a single solar panel to meet the whole power requirement, for that you have to use the suitable combination of multiple panels as per the specification of your system. image As a source of energy, solar panels work as battery. In series connection the voltage of individual panels get added up and current (Wattage) Remains same. For example if you connect two 100 Watts 12 Volt solar panels in series (Positive terminal of the first panel to the negative terminal of second panel) , the net voltage will be 24 Volts but the power remains same (100Watts). In parallel combination of panels the current/wattage added up and the voltage remains same. If you connect two 100 Watts 12 Volt Solar panels in parallel (Positive terminal of first panel to positive terminal of second panels and negative terminal to negative terminal) the power/current get added up and voltage remains same means the net wattage of panels will be 200 Watts 12 Volt. You can use series- parallel combination of multiple panels to meet desired voltage and power requirement. See the figure. If you are planning to install a 1 Kilo Watt plant, then have to go for Five 200 Watts 12 Volts panels and connect the same in parallel. One important thing you must keep in mind that a 200 Watt panel cannot give exact 200 Watt power always. The rated power inscribed on the panel is on Standard Testing Conditions, in practical field conditions, it can go down. Standard Test Conditions indicates mainly the Standard Temperature (25 Degree Celsius) and Solar energy intensity (1000 W/Sq Mtr). Temperature Coefficient of Solar Panels: Power output from Solar panel varies according to the temperature. Normally a 200 Watts Solar panel give the rated output at 25 Degree Celsius. If temperature go above this point say 30 to 35 Degree, power output reduces accordingly. Excessive heat can reduce the output by 10 to 20%. If the temperature coefficient is marked as minus 0.5% per degree in a Solar panel, it indicates the power reduction of 0.5% on every degree raise in temperature over 25 Degree Celsius. In a sunny day if the temperature goes around 45 Degree Centigrade, the power output will be reduced by 10%. Conversely, if temperature come down below 25 Degree, the opposite action take places, means power increases according to the same ratio. Means in the sunny day of winter, a Solar panel will give its optimum output. Power Tolerance of Solar Panels Power tolerance of a Solar Panel is the range of upward or downward variation of power generated with respect to the Standard Power Output. For example, a 250-watt panel with a ±5% power tolerance means under standard test conditions the power generated by the solar panels varies from 237.5 Watts to 262.5 Watts. Go for a panel with minimum power tolerance ratings. Nowadays panels with 3% power tolerance level are available in market. Types of Solar Panels Solar panels are mainly classified in to three . Monocrystaline panels Polycrystalline Panels Thin Film Amorphous panels Monocrystalline Solar Panels Single Crystalline Solar panels of Mono Crystalline Solar panels are the panels which are made of Mono Crystalline Silicon. These panels can be identified by the physical appearance itself. Due to high purity of Silicon colour of these panels are dark blue. Mono Crystalline panels are made of the Wafers sliced from the cylindrical Silicon ingots. See the figure. Mono Crystalline Solar Panel Advantages and Disadvantages of Mono Crystalline Solar Panels. Advantages As Monocrystalline solar panels are made with pure grade of Silicon, efficiency of these type these type of panels are very high, typically 15 to 20%. Less space required. As compared to other type of panels Mono Crystalline panels are space efficient. For a specified power output, space required by these panels are considerably less than thin film and Poly Crystalline panels. Long life- Life of the Mono crystalline panels are very high as compared with other type of panels. Better performance in cooler conditions Disadvantages Mono Crystalline Panels are costly because of high production cost. Partial shading on Mono Crystalline Panels may leads complete power cutoff. Polycrystalline Panels These type of panels use multi crystalline Silicon . Here the raw silicon is melted and molded to make square wafers. Here multiple small crystals make a module. We can identify the Poly Crystalline Solar panels through the physical appearance. Bluish shade distinguish poly crystalline panels from mono crystalline panels . Unlike mono crystalline panels these panels don’t have cut edges. These type of Solar panels are most common in domestic usage. Poly Crystalline Solar PanelsAdvantages Poly Crystalline Solar Panels Due to less production cost, Poly Crystalline Solar Panels are comparatively cheaper. Comparatively better performance in hot conditions Good life span. Disadvantages Less efficient than Mono Crystalline Panels. Not space efficient as compared with Mono Crystalline Panels. More space required for the same rated power. Thin Film Amorphous Solar Panels Thin film solar panels are of relatively new technology solar panels. These type of panels consist of layers of photovoltaic materials about 10 nm thick compared with 200- to 300-nm layers for crystalline-silicon cells. Due to poor efficiency these type of panels are not used for home solar energy applications. Moreover area per wattage requirements of these panels are very high as compared with mono/poly crystalline panels. Type of Mountings You must take extreme care while selecting the panel mounting. Vendors may supply substandard mild steel mounting, which will be rusted rusted and collapsed within a couple of years. You have the choice of Powder coated Mild steel, Galvanized Mild Steel, Aluminium and Stainless steel mountings. Need not to mention that Stainless steel and Aluminium mountings are the best , especially if you are living in coastal area. Batteries for Solar power plant Battery requirement of a Solar power plant is depends upon the Solar Panel wattage and inverter capacity. A 1 Kilowatt solar power plant requires an inverter with a power rating of minimum 1 Kilowatt or more. For a 1 Kilowatt inverter, the operating voltage will be 24 Volts. Hence minimum two 12 Volts batteries in series connection is mandatory. More number of batteries will give more backup, but it requires more charging time too. For a typical 1 Kilowatt Solar home power plant 24 Volts 300 Ah battery bank is considered ideal. Normally Valve Regulated Lead Acid batteries (VRLA) are used in home solar power plants. These batteries are of deep discharge type designed to charge rapidly and can be discharged utpo the minimum level. Normal Automotive lead acid batteries are not suitable for solar inverters. If you are worried about the maintenance of the battery bank, then it is advisable to go for maintenance free sealed lead acid batteries. Cost of SMF batteries are a little bit higher than normal VRLA and tubular batteries. How and where to position solar panels? To get the maximum output from solar panels, it must be positioned at a suitable angle as per the geographical location. Earth’s position of sun varies through out the year, but changing the angle of Solar panels Every time in accordance that is not practicable. If you have a fixed mount, it is advisable to fix the panels at an angle which gives optimum output throughout in al seasons. For getting complete sunlight from sun’s East to West track, solar panels are required to be mounted south facing with angle of tilt as per the season. Life of Solar panels We can see 25 years warranty claims come with every solar panels. This 25 years warranty is a gimmick. Solar panels can live even many more years than this 25 years mark, but the question you must ask after few years say five years how much power it can give. This is the actual warranty/guarantee term. Normally output of Solar panels decreases due to ageing and other environmental factors. Some manufactures assure 99 to 100% output utpo first 10 years. The assurance of 80% power output after 25 years can not be considered as a benchmark. A panel which guarantees 100% power output will be superior than that one. As per MNRE specifications A solar panel must give minimum 90% output upto 10 years and 80% output after 25 Years. Normally the extent of guarantee is the Replenishment of lost power due to ageing only. Space requirement for a home solar power plant For a typical 1 Kilowatt Solar power plant, minimum 100 Square feet shadow free plane area is essential. It can be roof top also. Size of the solar panels varies as per the wattage rating of Solar panels. A 200 watt poly crystalline panel has a dimension of 1.5 Mtr x 1 Mtr x 1 Inch (Length x Width x Thickness). Cost of the panel varies from Rs 60 to 100 per watts. Solar Calculator Applications These Android application will help you to decide the size of home solar power plant as per your energy requirement. https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=uk.co.networkadvice.solarcalc& feature=search_result https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.vistechprojects.solarmeter& feature=search_result At an average how much energy I will get from a 100 Watt solar panel per year? A 100 Watts panel can give maximum 0.5 unit electricity per day. Means per month 15 Units per month. A 1 Kilowatt Solar plant can give 4 to 5 Unit electricity per day. Solar panel efficiency Efficiency – the ration of input solar energy to output electric energy is very much poor in world’s most efficient solar panel. In lab environments maximum achieved energy efficiency is 40% only, but which is far away from the real world situations. Practically the efficiency of off the shelf solar panels varies from 15 to 20% only. What is solar charge controller? Solar charge controller or charge regulator is an essential requirement for a solar energy system. Output from a 100W 12 V solar panel is not always 12 V through out the day. It varies from minimum 12 Volts to Maximum 18 Volt as per the sunlight. Means a 100 Watt Solar panels is designed to cater 100Watt power at an average. Solar charge controllers couples the solar panels with battery by regulating the fluctuating output from solar panels. A good charge controller prevent under and over charging of connected batteries. It prevents the reverse current flow from battery to panels under poor sunlight conditions and night. Additionally charge controllers give protection against battery and panel reverse polarity. Will solar panels work in cloudy, foggy and rainy seasons? Yes, Solar panels work in such bad light conditions also. Solar panels are designed to give the rated output even in poor sunlight conditions also. Here panels give more output than the rated value in good sunlight conditions. What is Solar tracking system? Is it necessary for me? Sun light has two components, direct and diffused. Here direct beam consists 90% of the solar energy. Solar tracker is a mechanical system which keeps the solar panels always facing towards sun . This will increase the overall efficiency of the plant by taping the optimum energy. For normal home solar energy plants, trackers are not necessary and it’s not value for money also. However in big solar plants (Mega watts range) it’s mandatory to extract the full benefit of the system. Can I expand the capacity of the plant by adding more panels in future? Yes you can, your inverter must be compatible for that with suitable ratings. Roof mounting or Ground mounting. Which one is more advisable? Normally people prefer roof mounting because of space constraints and availability of shadow free area. If you have sufficient space in ground, you can install the panels in ground also. In case of roof mounting, the roof must be strong enough to withstand the weight of mounting frame and panels apart from that, it must sustain strong wind also. How to get govt subsidies on Solar systems? Central Govt and State Govt give subsidies for solar energy systems. Normally you will get 30% of the total amount as Central Govt subsidy. Before installing the plant you must apply for that in prescribed format. One thing you must keep in mind that, it will be difficult to get the subsidy after installation without prior approval from the concerned agencies. You have to purchase the items from the MNRE (Ministry of New and Renewable energy) empanelled vendors only. List of Manufacturers empanelled under Capital Subsidy scheme implemented through NABARD (as on 16-06-2013). The list contains contact numbers of all approved vendors across various parts of India. Even though you don’t want to get the subsidy, it is highly advisable to get the system installed from these vendors because they strictly comply with the necessary performance and technical standards. State Nodal Agencies for Minister of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) Go through this list to get the contact information of State wise Nodal centres of MNRE. You must contact the regional/district nodal centres before installing a solar home power plant. Apart from the 30% Central Govt subsidy, many state govts offer additional subsidies and other special schemes to promote alternate energy usage.
What is Reverse Osmosis? Reverse Osmosis is a technology that is used to remove a large majority of contaminants from water by pushing the water under pressure through a semi-permeable membrane. This article is aimed towards an audience that has little or no experience with Reverse Osmosis and will attempt to explain the basics in simple terms that should leave the reader with a better overall understanding of Reverse Osmosis technology and its applications. This article covers the following topics: Understanding Osmosis and Reverse Osmosis How does Reverse Osmosis (RO) work? What contaminants does Reverse Osmosis (RO) remove? Performance and design calculations for Reverse Osmosis (RO) systems Salt Rejection % Salt Passage % Recovery % Concentration Factor Flux Rate Mass Balance Understanding the difference between passes and stages in a Reverse Osmosis (RO) system 1 stage vs 2 stage Reverse Osmosis (RO) system Array Reverse Osmosis (RO) system with a concentrate recycle Single Pass vs Double Pass Reverse Osmosis (RO) systems Pre-treatment for Reverse Osmosis (RO) Fouling Scaling Chemical Attack Mechanical Damage Pre-treatment Solutions for Reverse Osmosis (RO) Multi Media Filtration Microfiltration Antiscalants and scale inhibitors Softening by ion exchange Sodium Bisulfite (SBS) injection Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) Reverse Osmosis (RO) performance trending and data normalization Reverse Osmosis (RO) membrane cleaning Summary Understanding Reverse Osmosis Reverse Osmosis, commonly referred to as RO, is a process where you demineralize or deionize water by pushing it under pressure through a semi-permeable Reverse Osmosis Membrane. Osmosis To understand the purpose and process of Reverse Osmosis you must first understand the naturally occurring process of Osmosis. Osmosis is a naturally occurring phenomenon and one of the most important processes in nature. It is a process where a weaker saline solution will tend to migrate to a strong saline solution. Examples of osmosis are when plant roots absorb water from the soil and our kidneys absorb water from our blood. Below is a diagram which shows how osmosis works. A solution that is less concentrated will have a natural tendency to migrate to a solution with a higher concentration. For example, if you had a container full of water with a low salt concentration and another container full of water with a high salt concentration and they were separated by a semi-permeable membrane, then the water with the lower salt concentration would begin to migrate towards the water container with the higher salt concentration. Osmosis Color A semi-permeable membrane is a membrane that will allow some atoms or molecules to pass but not others. A simple example is a screen door. It allows air molecules to pass through but not pests or anything larger than the holes in the screen door. Another example is Gore-tex clothing fabric that contains an extremely thin plastic film into which billions of small pores have been cut. The pores are big enough to let water vapor through, but small enough to prevent liquid water from passing. Reverse Osmosis is the process of Osmosis in reverse. Whereas Osmosis occurs naturally without energy required, to reverse the process of osmosis you need to apply energy to the more saline solution. A reverse osmosis membrane is a semi-permeable membrane that allows the passage of water molecules but not the majority of dissolved salts, organics, bacteria and pyrogens. However, you need to 'push' the water through the reverse osmosis membrane by applying pressure that is greater than the naturally occurring osmotic pressure in order to desalinate (demineralize or deionize) water in the process, allowing pure water through while holding back a majority of contaminants. Below is a diagram outlining the process of Reverse Osmosis. When pressure is applied to the concentrated solution, the water molecules are forced through the semi-permeable membrane and the contaminants are not allowed through. Reverse Osmosis Color How does Reverse Osmosis work? Reverse Osmosis works by using a high pressure pump to increase the pressure on the salt side of the RO and force the water across the semi-permeable RO membrane, leaving almost all (around 95% to 99%) of dissolved salts behind in the reject stream. The amount of pressure required depends on the salt concentration of the feed water. The more concentrated the feed water, the more pressure is required to overcome the osmotic pressure. The desalinated water that is demineralized or deionized, is called permeate (or product) water. The water stream that carries the concentrated contaminants that did not pass through the RO membrane is called the reject (or concentrate) stream. Ro Membrane 1 As the feed water enters the RO membrane under pressure (enough pressure to overcome osmotic pressure) the water molecules pass through the semi-permeable membrane and the salts and other contaminants are not allowed to pass and are discharged through the reject stream (also known as the concentrate or brine stream), which goes to drain or can be fed back into the feed water supply in some circumstances to be recycled through the RO system to save water. The water that makes it through the RO membrane is called permeate or product water and usually has around 95% to 99% of the dissolved salts removed from it. It is important to understand that an RO system employs cross filtration rather than standard filtration where the contaminants are collected within the filter media. With cross filtration, the solution passes through the filter, or crosses the filter, with two outlets: the filtered water goes one way and the contaminated water goes another way. To avoid build up of contaminants, cross flow filtration allows water to sweep away contaminant build up and also allow enough turbulence to keep the membrane surface clean. What contaminants will Reverse Osmosis remove from water? Reverse Osmosis is capable of removing up to 99%+ of the dissolved salts (ions), particles, colloids, organics, bacteria and pyrogens from the feed water (although an RO system should not be relied upon to remove 100% of bacteria and viruses). An RO membrane rejects contaminants based on their size and charge. Any contaminant that has a molecular weight greater than 200 is likely rejected by a properly running RO system (for comparison a water molecule has a MW of 18). Likewise, the greater the ionic charge of the contaminant, the more likely it will be unable to pass through the RO membrane. For example, a sodium ion has only one charge (monovalent) and is not rejected by the RO membrane as well as calcium for example, which has two charges. Likewise, this is why an RO system does not remove gases such as CO2 very well because they are not highly ionized (charged) while in solution and have a very low molecular weight. Because an RO system does not remove gases, the permeate water can have a slightly lower than normal pH level depending on CO2 levels in the feed water as the CO2 is converted to carbonic acid. Reverse Osmosis is very effective in treating brackish, surface and ground water for both large and small flows applications. Some examples of industries that use RO water include pharmaceutical, boiler feed water, food and beverage, metal finishing and semiconductor manufacturing to name a few. Reverse Osmosis Performance & Design Calculations There are a handful of calculations that are used to judge the performance of an RO system and also for design considerations. An RO system has instrumentation that displays quality, flow, pressure and sometimes other data like temperature or hours of operation. In order to accurately measure the performance of an RO system you need the following operation parameters at a minimum: Feed pressure Permeate pressure Concentrate pressure Feed conductivity Permeate conductivity Feed flow Permeate flow Temperature SALT REJECTION % This equation tells you how effective the RO membranes are removing contaminants. It does not tell you how each individual membrane is performing, but rather how the system overall on average is performing. A well-designed RO system with properly functioning RO membranes will reject 95% to 99% of most feed water contaminants (that are of a certain size and charge). You can determine how effective the RO membranes are removing contaminants by using the following equation: Salt Rejection % = Conductivity of Feed Water – Conductivity of Permeate Water × 100 Conductivity of Feed The higher the salt rejection, the better the system is performing. A low salt rejection can mean that the membranes require cleaning or replacement. SALT PASSAGE % This is simply the inverse of salt rejection described in the previous equation. This is the amount of salts expressed as a percentage that are passing through the RO system. The lower the salt passage, the better the system is performing. A high salt passage can mean that the membranes require cleaning or replacement. Salt Passage % = (1 – Salt Rejection %) RECOVERY % Percent Recovery is the amount of water that is being 'recovered' as good permeate water. Another way to think of Percent Recovery is the amount of water that is not sent to drain as concentrate, but rather collected as permeate or product water. The higher the recovery % means that you are sending less water to drain as concentrate and saving more permeate water. However, if the recovery % is too high for the RO design then it can lead to larger problems due to scaling and fouling. The % Recovery for an RO system is established with the help of design software taking into consideration numerous factors such as feed water chemistry and RO pre-treatment before the RO system. Therefore, the proper % Recovery at which an RO should operate at depends on what it was designed for. By calculating the % Recovery you can quickly determine if the system is operating outside of the intended design. The calculation for % Recovery is below: % Recovery = Permeate Flow Rate (gpm) × 100 Feed Flow Rate (gpm) For example, if the recovery rate is 75% then this means that for every 100 gallons of feed water that enter the RO system, you are recovering 75 gallons as usable permeate water and 25 gallons are going to drain as concentrate. Industrial RO systems typically run anywhere from 50% to 85% recovery depending the feed water characteristics and other design considerations. CONCENTRATION FACTOR The concentration factor is related to the RO system recovery and is an important equation for RO system design. The more water you recover as permeate (the higher the % recovery), the more concentrated salts and contaminants you collect in the concentrate stream. This can lead to higher potential for scaling on the surface of the RO membrane when the concentration factor is too high for the system design and feed water composition. Concentration Factor = 1 1 – Recovery % The concept is no different than that of a boiler or cooling tower. They both have purified water exiting the system (steam) and end up leaving a concentrated solution behind. As the degree of concentration increases, the solubility limits may be exceeded and precipitate on the surface of the equipment as scale. For example, if your feed flow is 100 gpm and your permeate flow is 75 gpm, then the recovery is (75/100) x 100 = 75%. To find the concentration factor, the formula would be 1 ÷ (1-75%) = 4. A concentration factor of 4 means that the water going to the concentrate stream will be 4 times more concentrated than the feed water is. If the feed water in this example was 500 ppm, then the concentrate stream would be 500 x 4 = 2, 000 ppm. FLUX Gfd = gpm of permeate × 1, 440 min/day # of RO elements in system × square footage of each RO element For example, you have the following: The RO system is producing 75 gallons per minute (gpm) of permeate. You have 3 RO vessels and each vessel holds 6 RO membranes. Therefore you have a total of 3 x 6 = 18 membranes. The type of membrane you have in the RO system is a Dow Filmtec BW30-365. This type of RO membrane (or element) has 365 square feet of surface area. To find the flux (Gfd): Gfd = 75 gpm × 1, 440 min/day = 108, 000 18 elements × 365 sq ft 6, 570 The flux is 16 Gfd. This means that 16 gallons of water is passed through each square foot of each RO membrane per day. This number could be good or bad depending on the type of feed water chemistry and system design. Below is a general rule of thumb for flux ranges for different source waters and can be better determined with the help of RO design software. If you had used Dow Filmtec LE-440i RO membranes in the above example, then the flux would have been 14. So it is important to factor in what type of membrane is used and to try and keep the type of membrane consistent throughout the system. Feed Water Source Gfd Sewage Effluent 5-10 Sea Water 8-12 Brackish Surface Water 10-14 Brackish Well Water 14-18 RO Permeate Water 20-30 MASS BALANCE A Mass Balance equation is used to help determine if your flow and quality instrumentation is reading properly or requires calibration. If your instrumentation is not reading correctly, then the performance data trending that you are collecting is useless. You will need to collect the following data from an RO system to perform a Mass Balance calculation: Feed Flow (gpm) Permeate Flow (gpm) Concentrate Flow (gpm) Feed Conductivity (µS) Permeate Conductivity (µS) Concentrate Conductivity (µS) The mass balance equation is: (Feed flow1 x Feed Conductivity) = (Permeate Flow x Permeate Conductivity) + (Concentrate Flow*Concentrate Conductivity) 1Feed Flow equals Permeate Flow + Concentrate Flow For example, if you collected the following data from an RO system: Permeate Flow 5 gpm Feed Conductivity 500 µS Permeate Conductivity 10 µS Concentrate Flow 2 gpm Concentrate Conductivity 1200 µS Then the Mass Balance Equation would be: (7 x 500) = (5 x 10) + (2*1200) 3, 500 ≠ 2, 450 Then find the difference (Difference / Sum) ∗ 100 ((3, 500 - 2, 450) / (3, 500 + 2, 450)) * 100 = 18% A difference of +/- 5% is ok. A difference of +/- 5% to 10% is generally adequate. A difference of > +/- 10% is unacceptable and calibration of the RO instrumentation is required to ensure that you are collecting useful data. In the example above, the RO mass balance equation falls out of range and requires attention. Understanding the difference between passes and stages in a Reverse Osmosis (RO) system The terms stage and pass are often mistaken for the same thing in an RO system and can be confusing terminology for an RO operator. It is important to understand the differnce between a 1 and 2 stage RO and a 1 and 2 pass RO. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A 1 AND 2 STAGE RO SYSTEM In a one stage RO system, the feed water enters the RO system as one stream and exits the RO as either concentrate or permeate water. In a two-stage system the concentrate (or reject) from the first stage then becomes the feed water to the second stage. The permeate water is collected from the first stage is combined with permeate water from the second stage. Additional stages increase the recovery from the system. Ro Membrane One Two Stage ARRAY In a Reverse Osmosis System an array describes the physical arrangement of the pressure vessels in a 2 stage system. Pressure vessels contain RO membranes (usually from 1 to 6 RO membranes are in a pressure vessel). Each stage can have a certain amount of pressure vessels with RO membranes. The reject of each stage then becomes the feed stream for the next successive stage. The 2 stage RO system displayed on the previous page is a 2:1 array which means that the concentrate (or reject) of the first 2 RO vessels is fed to the next 1 vessel. RO SYSTEM WITH CONCENTRATE RECYCLE With an RO system that can't be properly staged and the feed water chemistry allows for it, a concentrate recycle setup can be utilized where a portion of the concentrate stream is fed back to the feed water to the first stage to help increase the system recovery. Ro Concentrate Recycle SINGLE PASS RO VS DOUBLE PASS RO Think of a pass as a stand alone RO system. With this in mind, the difference between a single pass RO system and a double pass RO system is that with a double pass RO, the permeate from the first pass becomes the feed water to the second pass (or second RO) which ends up producing a much higher quality permeate because it has essentially gone through two RO systems. Besides producing a much higher quality permeate, a double pass system also allows the opportunity to remove carbon dioxide gas from the permeate by injecting caustic between the first and second pass. C02 is undesirable when you have mixed bed ion exchange resin beds after the RO. By adding caustic after the first pass, you increase the pH of the first pass permeate water and convert C02 to bicarbonate (HCO3-) and carbonate (CO3-2) for better rejection by the RO membranes in the second pass. This can't be done with a single pass RO because injecting caustic and forming carbonate (CO3-2) in the presence of cations such as calcium will cause scaling of the RO membranes. Ro Membrane Single Double RO Pretreatment Proper pretreatment using both mechanical and chemical treatments is critical for an RO system to prevent fouling, scaling and costly premature RO membrane failure and frequent cleaning requirements. Below is a summary of common problems an RO system experiences due to lack of proper pretreatment. FOULING Fouling occurs when contaminants accumulate on the membrane surface effectively plugging the membrane. There are many contaminants in municipal feed water that are naked to the human eye and harmless for human consumption, but large enough to quickly foul (or plug) an RO system. Fouling typically occurs in the front end of an RO system and results in a higher pressure drop across the RO system and a lower permeate flow. This translates into higher operating costs and eventually the need to clean or replace the RO membranes. Fouling will take place eventually to some extent given the extremely fine pore size of an RO membrane no matter how effective your pretreatment and cleaning schedule is. However, by having proper pretreatment in place, you will minimize the need to address fouling related problems on a regular basis. Fouling can be caused by the following: Particulate or colloidal mater (dirt, silt, clay, etc.) Organics (humic/fulvic acids, etc) Microorganisms (bacteria, etc). Bacteria present one of the most common fouling problems since RO membranes in use today cannot tolerate a disinfectant such as chlorine and thefore microorganisms are often able to thrive and multiply on the membrane surface. They may product biofilms that cover the membrane surface and result in heavy fouling. Breakthrough of filter media upstream of the RO unit. GAC carbon beds and softener beds may develop an under drain leak and if there is not adequate post filtration in place the media can foul the RO system. By performing analytical tests, you can determine if the feed water to your RO has a high potential for fouling. To prevent fouling of an RO system, mechanical filtration methods are used. The most popular methods to prevent fouling are the use of multi-media filters (MMF) or microfiltration (MF). In some cases cartridge filtration will suffice. SCALING As certain dissolved (inorganic) compounds become more concentrated (remember discussion on concentration factor) then scaling can occur if these compounds exceed their solubility limits and precipitate on the membrane surface as scale. The results of scaling are a higher pressure drop across the system, higher salt passage (less salt rejection), low permeate flow and lower permeate water quality. An example of a common scale that tends to form on an RO membrane is calcium carbonate (CaCO3). CHEMICAL ATTACK Modern thin film composite membranes are not tolerant to chlorine or chloramines. Oxidizers such as chlorine will 'burn' holes in the membrane pores and can cause irreparable damage. The result of chemical attack on an RO membrane is a higher permeate flow and a higher salt passage (poorer quality permeate water). This is why microorganism growth on RO membranes tends to foul RO membranes so easily since there is no biocide to prevent its growth. MECHANICAL DAMAGE Part of the pretreatment scheme should be pre and post RO system plumbing and controls. If 'hard starts' occur mechanical damage to the membranes can occur. Likewise, if there is too much backpressure on the RO system then mechanical damage to the RO membranes can also occur. These can be addressed by using variable frequency drive motors to start high pressure pumps for RO systems and by installing check valve(s) and/or pressure relief valves to prevent excessive back pressure on the RO unit that can cause permanent membrane damage. Pretreatment Solutions Below are some pretreatment solutions for RO systems that can help minimize fouling, scaling and chemical attack. MULTI MEDIA FILTRATION (MMF) A Multi-Media Filter is used to help prevent fouling of an RO system. A Multi-Media Filter typically contains three layers of media consisting of anthracite coal, sand and garnet, with a supporting layer of gravel at the bottom. These are the medias of choice because of the differences in size and density. The larger (but lighter) anthracite coal will be on top and the heavier (but smaller) garnet will remain on the bottom. The filter media arrangement allows the largest dirt particles to be removed near the top of the media bed with the smaller dirt particles being retained deeper and deeper in the media. This allows the entire bed to act as a filter allowing much longer filter run times between backwash and more efficient particulate removal. A well-operated Multi-Media Filter can remove particulates down to 15-20 microns. A Multi-Media Filter that uses a coagulant addition (which induces tiny particles to join together to form particles large enough to be filtered) can remove particulates down to 5-10 microns. To put this in perspective, the width of a human hair is around 50 microns. A multi media filter is suggested when the Silt Density Index (SDI) value is greater than 3 or when the turbidity is greater than 0.2 NTU. There is no exact rule, but the above guidelines should be followed to prevent premature fouling of RO membranes. It is important to have a 5 micron cartridge filter placed directly after the MMF unit in the event that the under drains of the MMF fail. This will prevent the MMF media from damaging downstream pumps and fouling the RO system. MICROFILTRATION (MF) Microfiltration (MF) is effective in removing colloidal and bacteria matter and has a pore size of only 0.1-10µm. Microfiltration is helpful in reducing the fouling potential for an RO unit. Membrane configuration can vary between manufacturers, but the "hollow fiber" type is the most commonly used. Typically, the water is pumped from the outside of the fibers, and the clean water is collected from the inside of the fibers. Microfiltration membranes used in potable water applications usually operate in "dead-end" flow. In dead-end flow, all of the water fed to the membrane is filtered through the membrane. A filter cake that must be periodically backwashed from the membrane surface forms. Recovery rates are normally greater than 90 percent on feed water sources which have fairly high quality and low turbidity feeds. ANTISCALANTS AND SCALE INHIBITORS Antiscalants and scale inhibitors, as their name suggests, are chemicals that can be added to feed water before an RO unit to help reduce the scaling potential of the feed water. Antiscalants and scale inhibitors increase the solubility limits of troublesome inorganic compounds. By increasing the solubility limits, you are able to concentrate the salts further than otherwise would be possible and therefore achieve a higher recovery rate and run at a higher concentration factor. Antiscalants and scale inhibitors work by interfering with scale formation and crystal growth. The choice of antiscalant or scale inhibitor to use and the correct dosage depends on the feed water chemistry and RO system design. SOFTENING BY ION EXCHANGE A water softener can be used to help prevent scaling in an RO system by exchanging scale forming ions with non scale forming ions. As with a MMF unit, it is important to have a 5 micron cartridge filter placed directly after the water softener in the event that the under drains of the softener fail. SODIUM BISULFITE (SBS) INJECTION By adding sodium bisulfite (SBS or SMBS), which is a reducer, to the water stream before an RO at the proper dose you can remove residual chlorine. GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON (GAC) GAC is used for both removing organic constituents and residual disinfectants (such as chlorine and chloramines) from water. GAC media is made from coal, nutshells or wood. Activated carbon removes residual chlorine and chloramines by a chemical reaction that involves a transfer of electrons from the surface of the GAC to the residual chlorine or chloramines. The chlorine or chloramines ends up as a chloride ion that is no longer an oxidizer. The disadvantage of using a GAC before the RO unit is that the GAC will remove chlorine quickly at the very top of the GAC bed. This will leave the remainder of the GAC bed without any biocide to kill microorganisms. A GAC bed will absorb organics throughout the bed, which is potential food for bacteria, so eventually a GAC bed can become a breeding ground for bacteria growth which can pass easily to the RO membranes. Likewise, a GAC bed can produce very small carbon fines under some circumstances that have the potential to foul an RO. RO Data Trending and Normalization The RO membranes are the heart of the RO system and certain data points need to be collected to determine the health of the RO membranes. These data points include the system pressures, flows, quality and temperature. Water temperature is directly proportional to pressure. As the water temperature decreases it becomes more viscous and the RO permeate flow will drop as it requires more pressure to push the water through the membrane. Likewise, when the water temperature increases the RO permeate flow will increase. As a result, performance data for an RO system must be normalized so that flow variations are not interpreted as abnormal when no problem exists. The normalized flows, pressures and salt rejection should be calculated, graphed and compared to the baseline data (when the RO was commissioned or after the membranes were cleaned or replaced) to help troubleshoot any problems and also determine when to clean or inspect the membranes for damage. Data normalization helps display the true performance of the RO membranes. As a general rule of thumb, when the normalized change is +/- 15% from the baseline data then you need to take action. If you don't follow this rule then RO membrane cleanings may not be very effective at brining the membranes back to near new performance. RO Membrane Cleaning RO membranes will inevitably require periodic cleaning, anywhere from 1 to 4 times a year depending on the feed water quality. As a general rule, if the normalized pressure drop or the normalized salt passage has increased by 15%, then it is time to clean the RO membranes. If the normalized permeate flow has decreased by 15% then it is also time to clean the RO membranes. You can either clean the RO membranes in place or have them removed from the RO system and cleaned off site by a service company that specializes in this service. It has been proven that offsite membrane cleaning is more effective at providing a better cleaning than onsite cleaning skids. RO membrane cleaning involves low and high pH cleaners to remove contaminants from the membrane. Scaling is addressed with low pH cleaners and organics, colloidal and biofouling are treated with a high pH cleaner. Cleaning RO membranes is not only about using the appropriate chemicals. There are many other factors involved such as flows, water temperature and quality, properly designed and sized cleaning skids and many other factors that an experienced service group must address in order to properly clean RO membranes. Summary Reverse Osmosis is an effective and proven technology to produce water that is suitable for many industrial applications that require demineralized or deionized water. Further post treatment after the RO system such as mixed bed deionization can increase the quality of the RO permeate and make it suitable for the most demanding applications. Proper pretreatment and monitoring of an RO system is crucial to preventing costly repairs and unscheduled maintenance. With the correct system design, maintenance program, and experienced service support, your RO system should provide many years of high purity water.
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specifications Applications Suitable for Purification of Brackish / Tap Water Purification Capacity Upto 15 LPH* Body Material ABS Food Grade Plastic Mounting On the Wall / Counter-Top Dimensions(mm) L 405 W 330 H 470 Inlet Water Pressure/Temp (Min) 0.3 kg / cm2 or 4.267psi / 10°C Inlet Water Pressure/Temp (Max) 3 kg / cm2 or 42.67psi / 35°C Filter Cartridges Sediment, Carbon Block Filter, UF & Post Carbon Auto-Flushing System Yes UV Lamp Wattage 11 Watt Weight 10.800 kg Storage Capacity 8 L Purification Production Rate 15 L/hr. Maximum Duty Cycle 75 L/day Power Consumption 60 W Membrane Type Thin Film Composite RO Booster Pump Voltage 24 V DC Mains Voltage 100 - 300 V~ AC / 50 Hz, 800mA
KENT Supreme FEATURES NO WATER WASTAGE RO TECHNOLOGY The RO purification process is essential to remove dissolved impurities like arsenic, fluorides, heavy metals, etc. as they are harmful for health. Conventional RO purification technology, while purifying, rejects a very high percentage of water (around 80%) and only 20% purified water is recovered. Balance water is wasted and goes down the drain. KENT Supreme RO water purifier offers no water wastage advantage. KENT has developed an innovative and patented technology which offers no water wastage in RO purifiers. The heart of this technology is a computer controlled process wherein the membrane is washed automatically and more than 50% of water intake is recovered as purified water. The balance rejected water is stored in a separate ‘Reject Water Tank’, which can be utilized by consumers for household purposes. The net result is no water wastage. DOUBLE PURIFICATION BY RO + UV + UF WITH TDS CONTROLLER KENT's patented KENT's Mineral ROTM technology provides double purification of RO + UV + UF, which removes even dissolved impurities such as chemicals and salts. The TDS controller maintains essential natural minerals, thereby providing 100% safe & tasty drinking water, which is ideal for consumption. SPECIFICATIONS APPLICATIONS Suitable for Purification of Brackish / Tap Water PURIFICATION CAPACITY Upto 15 LPH* BODY MATERIAL ABS Food Grade Plastic MOUNTING On the Wall DIMENSIONS(MM) L 430 W 270 H 630 INLET WATER PRESSURE/TEMP (MIN) 0.3 kg / cm2 or 4.267psi / 10°C INLET WATER PRESSURE/TEMP (MAX) 3 kg / cm2 or 42.67psi / 35°C FILTER CARTRIDGES Sediment, Carbon Block Filter, UF & Post Carbon AUTO-FLUSHING SYSTEM Yes UV LAMP WATTAGE 11 Watt WEIGHT 10.900 kg STORAGE CAPACITY 9+9 L PURIFICATION PRODUCTION RATE 15 L/hr. MAXIMUM DUTY CYCLE 75 L/day POWER CONSUMPTION 60 W MEMBRANE TYPE Thin Film Composite RO BOOSTER PUMP VOLTAGE 24 V DC MAINS VOLTAGE 100 - 300 V AC / 50 Hz, 800mA
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