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An automotive battery is a rechargeable battery that supplies electrical energy to a motor vehicle. It is also known as an SLI battery[citation needed] (abbreviation of starting-lighting-ignition) and its main purpose is to start the engine. Once the engine is running, power for the car is supplied by the alternator. Typically, starting discharges less than three per cent of the battery capacity. SLI batteries are designed to release a high burst of current, measured in amperes, and then be quickly recharged. They are not designed for deep discharge, and a full discharge can reduce the battery's lifespan.[1] As well as starting the engine an SLI battery supplies the extra power necessary when the vehicle's electrical requirements exceed the supply from the charging system. It is also a stabilizer, evening out potentially-damaging voltage spikes.[2] While the engine is running, most of the power is provided by the alternator, which includes a voltage regulator to keep the output between 13.5 and 14.5 V.[3] Modern SLI batteries are lead-acid type and provide 12.6 volts of direct current, nominally 12 V. The battery is actually six cells connected serially.[4] Battery electric vehicles are powered by a high-voltage electric vehicle battery, but they usually have an automotive battery as well, so that it can be equipped with standard automotive accessories which are designed to run on 12 V. Contents [hide] 1 History 2 Design 3 Use and maintenance 4 Environmental impact 5 See also 6 References 7 External links History[edit] Early cars did not have batteries, as their electrical systems were limited. A bell was used instead of an electric horn, headlights were gas-powered, and the engine was started with a crank. Car batteries became widely used around 1920 as cars became equipped with electric starters. The sealed battery, which did not require refilling, was invented in 1971.[5] The first starting and charging systems were designed to be 6-volt and positive-ground systems, with the vehicle's chassis directly connected to the positive battery terminal.[6] Today, all vehicles have a negative ground system. The negative battery terminal is connected to the car's chassis. The Hudson Motor Car Company was the first to use a standardized battery in 1918 when they started using Battery Council International batteries. BCI is the organization that sets the dimensional standards for batteries.[7] Cars used a 6 V electrical system, and so had 6 V batteries until the mid-1950s. The changeover from 6 to 12 V happened when bigger engines with higher compression ratios required more electrical power to start.[8] Smaller cars, which required less power to start stayed with 6 V longer, for example the Volkswagen Beetle in the mid-1960s and the Citroën 2CV in 1970. In the 1990s a 42V electrical system standard was proposed. It was intended to allow more powerful electrically driven accessories, and lighter automobile wiring harnesses. The availability of higher-efficiency motors, new wiring techniques and digital controls, and a focus on hybrid vehicle systems that use high-voltage starter/generators has largely eliminated the push for switching the main automotive voltages.[9] Design[edit] Low-maintenance or maintenance-free: In the past, batteries required maintenance in the form of electrolyte refills. Modern batteries retain their fluid for the life of the battery. A weakness of these batteries is that they are very intolerant of a deep discharge, for example when the car battery is completely drained by leaving the lights on. This coats the lead plate electrodes with sulfate deposits and can reduce the battery's lifespan by a third or more. VRLA: also known as absorbed glass mat (AGM) batteries are more tolerant of deep discharge, but are more expensive.[10] Batteries are typically made of six galvanic cells in a series circuit. Each cell provides 2.1 volts for a total of 12.6 volts at full charge.[11] Each cell of a lead storage battery consists of alternate plates of lead (cathode) and lead coated with lead dioxide (anode) immersed in an electrolyte of sulfuric acid solution.[12] The actual standard cell potential is obtained from the standard reduction potentials. This causes a chemical reaction that releases electrons, allowing them to flow through conductors to produce electricity. As the battery discharges, the acid of the electrolyte reacts with the materials of the plates, changing their surface to lead sulfate. When the battery is recharged, the chemical reaction is reversed: the lead sulfate reforms into lead dioxide. With the plates restored to their original condition, the process may be repeated. Some vehicles use other starter batteries. the 2010 Porsche 911 GT3 RS has a lithium-ion battery as an option to save weight.[13] Heavy vehicles may have two batteries in series for a 24 V system or may have series-parallel groups of batteries supplying 24 V.[14] Specifications: Physical format: batteries are grouped by physical size, type and placement of the terminals, and mounting style.[10] Ampere-hours (A·h) is a unit related to the energy storage capacity of the battery. This rating is required by law in Europe. Cranking amperes (CA): the amount of current a battery can provide at 32 °F (0 °C). Cold cranking amperes (CCA) is the amount of current a battery can provide at 0 °F (−18 °C). Modern cars with computer controlled fuel-injected engines take no more than a few seconds to start and CCA figures are less important than they were in the days of carburetors.[15] Hot cranking amperes (HCA) is the amount of current a battery can provide at 80 °F (26.7 °C). The rating is defined as the current a lead-acid battery at that temperature can deliver for 30 seconds and maintain at least 1.2 volts per cell (7.2 volts for a 12-volt battery).[citation needed] Reserve capacity minutes (RCM) is a battery's ability to sustain a minimum stated electrical load; it is defined as the time (in minutes) that a lead-acid battery at 80 °F (27 °C) will continuously deliver 25 amperes before its voltage drops below 10.5 volts.[citation needed] Battery Council International group size (BCI) specifies a battery's physical dimensions, such as length, width, and height. These groups are determined by the organization.[citation needed] In the United States there are codes on batteries to help consumers buy a recently produced one. When batteries are stored, they can start losing their charge. A battery made in October 2015 will have a numeric code of 10-5 or an alphanumeric code of K-5. “A” is for January, “B” is for February, and so on (the letter “I” is skipped).[15] Use and maintenance[edit] Heat is the primary cause of battery failure as it accelerates corrosion inside the battery.[16] A vehicle with a flat battery can be jump started by the battery of another vehicle or by a portable battery booster, after which a running engine (but running faster than idle speed) will continue to charge the battery[17] but it is preferable to use a battery charger. Corrosion at the battery terminals can prevent a car from starting due to electrical resistance, which can be prevented by the proper application of dielectric grease.[18] Sulfation occurs when the electrodes become coated with a hard layer of lead sulfate which weakens the battery. It occurs when a battery is not fully charged and remains discharged.[19] Sulfated batteries should be charged slowly to prevent damage.[20] SLI batteries are not designed for deep discharge, and their life is reduced when subjected to this.[21] Car batteries using lead-antimony plates require regular topping-up with pure water to replace water lost due to electrolysis and evaporation. By changing the alloying element to calcium, more recent designs have reduced the rate of water loss. Modern car batteries have reduced maintenance requirements, and may not provide caps for addition of water to the cells. Such batteries include extra electrolyte above the plates to allow for losses during the battery life. Some battery manufacturers include a built-in hydrometer to show the state of charge of the battery. A positive (red) jumper cable connected to battery post. An optional hydrometer window is visible by the single jumper clamp. (The black negative jumper clamp is not shown.) The primary wear-out mechanism is the shedding of active material from the battery plates, which accumulates at the bottom of the cells and which may eventually short-circuit the plates Environmental impact[edit] Battery recycling of automotive batteries reduces the need for resources required for manufacture of new batteries, diverts toxic lead from landfills, and prevents risk of improper disposal. Once a lead acid battery ceases to hold a charge, it is deemed a used lead acid battery (ULAB), which is classified as hazardous waste under the Basel Convention. The 12-volt car battery is the most recycled product in the world, according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency. In the U.S. alone, about 100 million auto batteries a year are replaced, and 99 percent of them are turned in for recycling.[22] However the recycling may be done incorrectly in unregulated environments. As part of global waste trade ULABs are shipped from industrialized countries to developing countries for disassembly and recuperation of the contents. About 97 per cent of the lead can be recovered. Pure Earth estimates that over 12 million third world people are affected by lead contamination from ULAB processing.[23] See also[edit] Car adapter Electric vehicle battery Lead-acid battery Rechargeable battery References[edit] Jump up ^ ChargingChargers, Larry Johnson, . "Battery Tutorial | ChargingChargers.com". www.chargingchargers.com. Retrieved 2016-02-15. Jump up ^ "My Website > What is a lead battery?". aboutbatteries.batterycouncil.org. Retrieved 2016-02-17. Jump up ^ "Automotive Charging Systems - A Short Course on How They Work | CarParts.com". www.carparts.com. Archived from the original on 2015-09-17. Retrieved 2016-02-17. Jump up ^ "Q & A: Car Batteries | Department of Physics | University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign". van.physics.illinois.edu. Retrieved 2016-02-18. Jump up ^ "History of the car battery | How a car battery works". www.racshop.co.uk. Retrieved 2016-02-17. Jump up ^ "Positive Vs. Negative Ground - Will charger work on positive ground vehicles?". www.batteryfloatchargers.com. Retrieved 2016-02-18. Jump up ^ Hemmings.com. "6-Volt Batteries | Hemmings Motor News". www.hemmings.com. Retrieved 2016-02-17. Jump up ^ "6 Volt to 12 Volt Changeover". www.fillingstation.com. Retrieved 2016-02-17. Jump up ^ "Whatever Happened to the 42-Volt Car?". Popular Mechanics. 2009-10-01. Retrieved 2016-02-18. ^ Jump up to: a b "How to Get the Right Car Battery". Consumer Reports. Retrieved 2016-02-17. Jump up ^ "Basic Battery Care". Popular Mechanics. 2006-03-29. Retrieved 2016-02-17. Jump up ^ Elert, Glenn. "Voltage of a Car Battery". hypertextbook.com. Retrieved 2016-02-17. Jump up ^ Wert, Ray (2009-08-19). "2010 Porsche 911 GT3 RS: Track-Ready, Street-Legal And More Power". Jalopnik.com. Archived from the original on 21 October 2009. Retrieved 2009-09-18. Jump up ^ "Automotive/SLI Batteries - Batteries by Fisher". Batteries by Fisher. Retrieved 2016-02-15. ^ Jump up to: a b "From Our Experts: Car Battery Tips". Consumer Reports. Retrieved 2016-02-17. Jump up ^ Inc., Johnson Controls. "Auto Battery Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)". Autobatteries.com. Retrieved 2016-02-17. Jump up ^ Magliozzi, Tom; Magliozzi, Ray (Apr 1, 2007), "Is revving the engine a good idea during a jump-start? Find out", Car Talk, Tappet Brothers Jump up ^ "How to Clean Corroded Car Battery Terminals". wikiHow. Jump up ^ "Description and treatment of sulphated batteries". Jump up ^ O. A. Witte (1922). "The Automotive Storage Battery Its Care and Repair". PowerStream. Archived from the original on April 4, 2016. Jump up ^ ChargingChargers, Larry Johnson, . "Battery Tutorial | ChargingChargers.com". www.chargingchargers.com. Retrieved 2016-02-15. Jump up ^ "Who Knew? A Car Battery Is the World's Most Recycled Product". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2016-02-18. Jump up ^ ":: WorstPolluted.org : Projects Reports". www.worstpolluted.org. Retrieved 2016-02-18.An automotive battery is a rechargeable battery that supplies electrical energy to a motor vehicle. It is also known as an SLI battery[citation needed] (abbreviation of starting-lighting-ignition) and its main purpose is to start the engine. Once the engine is running, power for the car is supplied by the alternator. Typically, starting discharges less than three per cent of the battery capacity. SLI batteries are designed to release a high burst of current, measured in amperes, and then be quickly recharged. They are not designed for deep discharge, and a full discharge can reduce the battery's lifespan.[1] As well as starting the engine an SLI battery supplies the extra power necessary when the vehicle's electrical requirements exceed the supply from the charging system. It is also a stabilizer, evening out potentially-damaging voltage spikes.[2] While the engine is running, most of the power is provided by the alternator, which includes a voltage regulator to keep the output between 13.5 and 14.5 V.[3] Modern SLI batteries are lead-acid type and provide 12.6 volts of direct current, nominally 12 V. The battery is actually six cells connected serially.[4] Battery electric vehicles are powered by a high-voltage electric vehicle battery, but they usually have an automotive battery as well, so that it can be equipped with standard automotive accessories which are designed to run on 12 V. Contents [hide] 1 History 2 Design 3 Use and maintenance 4 Environmental impact 5 See also 6 References 7 External links History[edit] Early cars did not have batteries, as their electrical systems were limited. A bell was used instead of an electric horn, headlights were gas-powered, and the engine was started with a crank. Car batteries became widely used around 1920 as cars became equipped with electric starters. The sealed battery, which did not require refilling, was invented in 1971.[5] The first starting and charging systems were designed to be 6-volt and positive-ground systems, with the vehicle's chassis directly connected to the positive battery terminal.[6] Today, all vehicles have a negative ground system. The negative battery terminal is connected to the car's chassis. The Hudson Motor Car Company was the first to use a standardized battery in 1918 when they started using Battery Council International batteries. BCI is the organization that sets the dimensional standards for batteries.[7] Cars used a 6 V electrical system, and so had 6 V batteries until the mid-1950s. The changeover from 6 to 12 V happened when bigger engines with higher compression ratios required more electrical power to start.[8] Smaller cars, which required less power to start stayed with 6 V longer, for example the Volkswagen Beetle in the mid-1960s and the Citroën 2CV in 1970. In the 1990s a 42V electrical system standard was proposed. It was intended to allow more powerful electrically driven accessories, and lighter automobile wiring harnesses. The availability of higher-efficiency motors, new wiring techniques and digital controls, and a focus on hybrid vehicle systems that use high-voltage starter/generators has largely eliminated the push for switching the main automotive voltages.[9] Design[edit] Low-maintenance or maintenance-free: In the past, batteries required maintenance in the form of electrolyte refills. Modern batteries retain their fluid for the life of the battery. A weakness of these batteries is that they are very intolerant of a deep discharge, for example when the car battery is completely drained by leaving the lights on. This coats the lead plate electrodes with sulfate deposits and can reduce the battery's lifespan by a third or more. VRLA: also known as absorbed glass mat (AGM) batteries are more tolerant of deep discharge, but are more expensive.[10] Batteries are typically made of six galvanic cells in a series circuit. Each cell provides 2.1 volts for a total of 12.6 volts at full charge.[11] Each cell of a lead storage battery consists of alternate plates of lead (cathode) and lead coated with lead dioxide (anode) immersed in an electrolyte of sulfuric acid solution.[12] The actual standard cell potential is obtained from the standard reduction potentials. This causes a chemical reaction that releases electrons, allowing them to flow through conductors to produce electricity. As the battery discharges, the acid of the electrolyte reacts with the materials of the plates, changing their surface to lead sulfate. When the battery is recharged, the chemical reaction is reversed: the lead sulfate reforms into lead dioxide. With the plates restored to their original condition, the process may be repeated. Some vehicles use other starter batteries. the 2010 Porsche 911 GT3 RS has a lithium-ion battery as an option to save weight.[13] Heavy vehicles may have two batteries in series for a 24 V system or may have series-parallel groups of batteries supplying 24 V.[14] Specifications: Physical format: batteries are grouped by physical size, type and placement of the terminals, and mounting style.[10] Ampere-hours (A·h) is a unit related to the energy storage capacity of the battery. This rating is required by law in Europe. Cranking amperes (CA): the amount of current a battery can provide at 32 °F (0 °C). Cold cranking amperes (CCA) is the amount of current a battery can provide at 0 °F (−18 °C). Modern cars with computer controlled fuel-injected engines take no more than a few seconds to start and CCA figures are less important than they were in the days of carburetors.[15] Hot cranking amperes (HCA) is the amount of current a battery can provide at 80 °F (26.7 °C). The rating is defined as the current a lead-acid battery at that temperature can deliver for 30 seconds and maintain at least 1.2 volts per cell (7.2 volts for a 12-volt battery).[citation needed] Reserve capacity minutes (RCM) is a battery's ability to sustain a minimum stated electrical load; it is defined as the time (in minutes) that a lead-acid battery at 80 °F (27 °C) will continuously deliver 25 amperes before its voltage drops below 10.5 volts.[citation needed] Battery Council International group size (BCI) specifies a battery's physical dimensions, such as length, width, and height. These groups are determined by the organization.[citation needed] In the United States there are codes on batteries to help consumers buy a recently produced one. When batteries are stored, they can start losing their charge. A battery made in October 2015 will have a numeric code of 10-5 or an alphanumeric code of K-5. “A” is for January, “B” is for February, and so on (the letter “I” is skipped).[15] Use and maintenance[edit] Heat is the primary cause of battery failure as it accelerates corrosion inside the battery.[16] A vehicle with a flat battery can be jump started by the battery of another vehicle or by a portable battery booster, after which a running engine (but running faster than idle speed) will continue to charge the battery[17] but it is preferable to use a battery charger. Corrosion at the battery terminals can prevent a car from starting due to electrical resistance, which can be prevented by the proper application of dielectric grease.[18] Sulfation occurs when the electrodes become coated with a hard layer of lead sulfate which weakens the battery. It occurs when a battery is not fully charged and remains discharged.[19] Sulfated batteries should be charged slowly to prevent damage.[20] SLI batteries are not designed for deep discharge, and their life is reduced when subjected to this.[21] Car batteries using lead-antimony plates require regular topping-up with pure water to replace water lost due to electrolysis and evaporation. By changing the alloying element to calcium, more recent designs have reduced the rate of water loss. Modern car batteries have reduced maintenance requirements, and may not provide caps for addition of water to the cells. Such batteries include extra electrolyte above the plates to allow for losses during the battery life. Some battery manufacturers include a built-in hydrometer to show the state of charge of the battery. A positive (red) jumper cable connected to battery post. An optional hydrometer window is visible by the single jumper clamp. (The black negative jumper clamp is not shown.) The primary wear-out mechanism is the shedding of active material from the battery plates, which accumulates at the bottom of the cells and which may eventually short-circuit the plates Environmental impact[edit] Battery recycling of automotive batteries reduces the need for resources required for manufacture of new batteries, diverts toxic lead from landfills, and prevents risk of improper disposal. Once a lead acid battery ceases to hold a charge, it is deemed a used lead acid battery (ULAB), which is classified as hazardous waste under the Basel Convention. The 12-volt car battery is the most recycled product in the world, according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency. In the U.S. alone, about 100 million auto batteries a year are replaced, and 99 percent of them are turned in for recycling.[22] However the recycling may be done incorrectly in unregulated environments. As part of global waste trade ULABs are shipped from industrialized countries to developing countries for disassembly and recuperation of the contents. About 97 per cent of the lead can be recovered. Pure Earth estimates that over 12 million third world people are affected by lead contamination from ULAB processing.[23] See also[edit] Car adapter Electric vehicle battery Lead-acid battery Rechargeable battery References[edit] Jump up ^ ChargingChargers, Larry Johnson, . "Battery Tutorial | ChargingChargers.com". www.chargingchargers.com. Retrieved 2016-02-15. Jump up ^ "My Website > What is a lead battery?". aboutbatteries.batterycouncil.org. Retrieved 2016-02-17. Jump up ^ "Automotive Charging Systems - A Short Course on How They Work | CarParts.com". www.carparts.com. Archived from the original on 2015-09-17. Retrieved 2016-02-17. Jump up ^ "Q & A: Car Batteries | Department of Physics | University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign". van.physics.illinois.edu. Retrieved 2016-02-18. Jump up ^ "History of the car battery | How a car battery works". www.racshop.co.uk. Retrieved 2016-02-17. Jump up ^ "Positive Vs. Negative Ground - Will charger work on positive ground vehicles?". www.batteryfloatchargers.com. Retrieved 2016-02-18. Jump up ^ Hemmings.com. "6-Volt Batteries | Hemmings Motor News". www.hemmings.com. Retrieved 2016-02-17. Jump up ^ "6 Volt to 12 Volt Changeover". www.fillingstation.com. Retrieved 2016-02-17. Jump up ^ "Whatever Happened to the 42-Volt Car?". Popular Mechanics. 2009-10-01. Retrieved 2016-02-18. ^ Jump up to: a b "How to Get the Right Car Battery". Consumer Reports. Retrieved 2016-02-17. Jump up ^ "Basic Battery Care". Popular Mechanics. 2006-03-29. Retrieved 2016-02-17. Jump up ^ Elert, Glenn. "Voltage of a Car Battery". hypertextbook.com. Retrieved 2016-02-17. Jump up ^ Wert, Ray (2009-08-19). "2010 Porsche 911 GT3 RS: Track-Ready, Street-Legal And More Power". Jalopnik.com. Archived from the original on 21 October 2009. Retrieved 2009-09-18. Jump up ^ "Automotive/SLI Batteries - Batteries by Fisher". Batteries by Fisher. Retrieved 2016-02-15. ^ Jump up to: a b "From Our Experts: Car Battery Tips". Consumer Reports. Retrieved 2016-02-17. Jump up ^ Inc., Johnson Controls. "Auto Battery Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)". Autobatteries.com. Retrieved 2016-02-17. Jump up ^ Magliozzi, Tom; Magliozzi, Ray (Apr 1, 2007), "Is revving the engine a good idea during a jump-start? Find out", Car Talk, Tappet Brothers Jump up ^ "How to Clean Corroded Car Battery Terminals". wikiHow. Jump up ^ "Description and treatment of sulphated batteries". Jump up ^ O. A. Witte (1922). "The Automotive Storage Battery Its Care and Repair". PowerStream. Archived from the original on April 4, 2016. Jump up ^ ChargingChargers, Larry Johnson, . "Battery Tutorial | ChargingChargers.com". www.chargingchargers.com. Retrieved 2016-02-15. Jump up ^ "Who Knew? A Car Battery Is the World's Most Recycled Product". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2016-02-18. Jump up ^ ":: WorstPolluted.org : Projects Reports". www.worstpolluted.org. Retrieved 2016-02-18.
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Nagar best solar inverter for home in chennai - Tondiarpet High Road best solar inverter for home in chennai - Tambaram, K.K.Nagar best solar inverter for home in chennai - Ramasamy Salai best solar inverter for home in chennai - Anna Nagar best solar inverter for home in chennai - Thiruninravur. Product Descriptions Luminous Solar is a powerful hybrid inverter with 30 Amp inbuilt charge Controller. It is India's most intelligent solar system which gives priority to solar power use to save on electricity bills. The Solar Inverter charges the battery from grid and Solar panel both. If Sun energy is available then It charges the battery from solar Panel and if Solar is not available, then the inverter charges the battery from Mains/Grid. It can charge the battery and supply solar power to connected load if solar generation is sufficient otherwise it gives first priority to solar battery charging and then supply additional power to connected loads. Key Features- First of its kind Home UPS that delivers both AC & DC output Up to 600 Watt PV Module solar panel compatibility Intelligent fuzzy logic technology hepls in saving of electricity from 1.5 to 3 unit a day. Pure Sine wave output provides better performance & safety to the output load. Product Descriptions Key Feature Solar hybrid Inverter with inbuilt 30 amp PWM Charge controller Running Load 3 CFL, 3 Tube light, 3 Ceiling Fan, 1 Television Battery Support All Brands & All Types Battery System Single battery / 12V Weight 12 Kg. Dimension in CM 37 * 31 *13 Technical Details Wave Type Pure Sine Wave Rated Capcity 850 VA Voltage Windwo (eco mode): 100 V – 290V Voltage window (UPS mode) 180V – 260 V Full Battery Recharge Time 10-12 Hrs Charge Controller Rating 30 Amp/ 12V DC Load Output 12 V upto 20 Amp Protection Overload, deep discharge, short-circuit, Battery low cut off Additional Features Battery Selection Type – Tubular/ Flat / Gel or VLRA Charging selection type – Intelligent charging / Normal Charging Voltage regulation mode – Eco / UPS Inverter reset key - Yes Display Mains available - yes Battery Charging through Mains - yes Battery Charging through Solar Panel – yes Voltage regulation display – yes Power savings - yes Load output through Battery - yes Low Battery Indication – yes Overload Indication – yes Recommendations Solar Panel Solar Panel wattage = Daily Power requirement / (Average Sunlight hours in a day * efficiency of the system) Let’s say, daily power requirement = 500 Watt /hour Average sunlight hour = 5 hrs Efficiency of the system = 35% Now the solar panel wattage requirement = 500 Wh / (5 hrs*0.35) = 300 Watt Battery 12V / (135 Ah – 180Ah) Everything you need to know before purchasing a Solar home inverter system Sujith 10/12/2013 8 SHARES Share on FacebookTweet on Twitter In Indian scenario if you are planning to install Home Solar energy plant to save your electricity bill, then you are doing a big blunder. It’s better to invest that amount in a good mutual fund or as a long term fixed deposit, you will be able to pay the electricity bill with the return/interest from that amount. However if you are in a place where power failure is more frequent then it’s a good option First and foremost thing before going for a Solar power plant is the knowledge about your load. Don’t think about running Electric motors, Refrigerators, Air conditioners etc in a Solar power plant. However if you want a completely off the grid solution for multiple reasons, can go for high capacity plants (2 KW to 5 KW) . In normal domestic usage consider the light loads like Fan, TV, Music Systems, Lights etc. More the number of appliances less the backup time, hence it is better to keep the appliances minimum and tap the maximum backup time from the plant. DC Only Solar Energy System. For a small family I personally suggest DC Only Solar system. As the name suggests in this system all appliances are directly working on DC. Before going for such a system, you must take care of your requirements. Here if we take only the Lights and Fans (The most essential load), the system will be more economical. If your requirement is to run one or two fans and two to three lights, then go for this system. A complete DC Solar energy system in this setup will cost you only Rs 25, 000 to 35, 000 including the cost of Battery, DC Fans and Lights. Here the main advantage is you can completely avoid inverter and the energy loss due to the energy conversion. However if you want to run your TV, Music system and other appliances forget about this and go for the inverter based solar power plant. SOLAR INVERTERS Solar inverters are the heart of a solar plant. It is very much important to know the basic features and specifications of a Solar inverter. Capacity: Capacity of the inverter is the maximum load that you can be connected with the inverter. For example if the capacity of a Solar inverter is 1 Kilowatt, you can connect maximum 1 KW load to that inverter. 1 Kilowatt is considered sufficient for average home usage. If money permits, you can go upto 2KW also, anything beyond that for home usage won’t be economical. Output: Don’t compromise on the output waveform of the inverters. It must be Sine wave. Fortunately most of the leading solar inverter firms are supplying sine wave inverters only in solar segment. Other features: Unlike normal inverters, solar inverters have many unique features to make it more energy efficient and to tap the maximum benefits from the solar panels. Maximum Solar energy benefit: Solar inverters charge battery bank with the power output from Solar panels during daytime. A typical 1 Kilowatt Home solar power plant takes five to six hours for charging the battery. If you are not completely drain out the battery during night time, it will take much less time to charge the battery full during the next day. Once the battery gets fully charged in one or two hours, in normal solar inverters rest of the useful solar energy will be wasted. In some solar inverters once the battery is fully charged, the power conditioning circuitry automatically cut the mains supply and Solar Panel battery combination will power the devices through inverter. Here during daytime effective and full utilization of solar power can be achieved. Metering: Apart from the battery charging status, power on/off, battery low, mains on/off indications, modern solar inverters are incorporated with energy meters which logs the energy usage from solar panels/mains, net daily/monthly energy usage etc. Programmable Controls: Modern solar inverters facilitates programmable energy control system. Here you can effectively decide what energy should be used when. How solar inverters differ from normal inverters? Inverter portion of both solar an normal inverters are same. In solar inverters the additional part is solar charge controller and associated switching circuits. Apart from the battery terminals solar inverters have two additional terminals to connect solar panels of suitable rating. Whenever sufficient sunlight is available, the output from solar panel will be utilized for charging the battery, which can brings down your electricity bill. image Is it possible to convert a normal inverter to a solar inverter? Yes, you can convert a normal inverter to a Solar inverter. Several firms are offering Solar Charge Controllers along with Automatic Transfer Switch which can couple the Solar panels with your existing inverter and battery. You just need to connect the Device as per the connection details. image When sufficient output available from Solar panels to charge the battery, it will be sensed by the intelligent automatic transfer switch and routed to battery. In this time mains supply will not be utilized for charging purpose. Whenever the solar output falls below the rated voltage, mains input from inverter will be used for battery charging. What is grid tied solar inverters? Grid tied inverters are coupled to main utility grid. Here the DC output from solar panel is converted to AC and coupled with the grid through a special type of energy meter known as Netmeter. Unlike normal energy meters, net meters are bi-directional. Here the solar energy is used as a supplement to the grid power. Grid tied inverters convert the DC power input from Solar panels to AC and feed the same to utility grid through Netmeter. If your solar panel is generating more energy than your domestic requirement, the excess energy will be credited to the grid, means you can sell the energy to the utility grid. Here grid tied inverters can not be used as a backup device as in the case of off line inverters. When mains grid power fails, as a safety measure inverter will not generate electricity. A circuit senses the power failure and cut off the inverter from main grid . This avoid risk to the line workers. In India you can’t use these type of inverters because the grid system is not yet modified for this. Pros and Cons of Grid tied inverter Less maintenance as not battery or charging circuits are used. Bring down your electricity bill by feeding the excess power to grid. Cons Can’t be used as a backup to main supply. Can’t use everywhere. Utility grid of the country must support these type of inverters. What is a solar- wind hybrid inverter? Solar- Wind hybrid inverters have separate input terminals to tap the energy from wind turbine and Solar panels. Charge controllers and regulators of Solar and wind turbines are different, hence separate charge controllers, regulators and associated switching circuits work as a bridge. Can I use solar panel output directly to run devices? Yes, you can run the equipment like fans, LED lights, pumps etc directly without using battery, but as the output of Solar panels are not steady due to clouds, bad weather etc, it’s not advisable to run the appliances which require stable voltage. However with suitable regulators, you can very easily run low power devices. Solar pumps works directly on the direct input from Solar panels. Solar pump is a combination of a DC motor and a centrifugal pump. Solar submersible pump sets are also available. Solar pump sets are extremely useful where Grid power supply is not accessible. In India a typical 1 HP , 500 W input 24 volt solar pumpset costs 35000 to 40000 without the cost of Solar panel and fittings. A complete set can cost around Rs 1 Lakh. These pump set can deliver around 1500 liters of water per hour on sunny days. Power requirements and Solar Panel Selection Here the deciding factor is your average monthly/yearly energy consumption. It can be very easily calculated by using your one year’s electricity bill. Your winter and summer electricity requirements considerably varies hence the average electricity usage of of the whole year can give a fair usage value. If your average monthly usage is 150 Units, then the daily usage is 150/30 = 5 Units or 5 KWh, means at an average you need 5 Kilo Watt hour energy. Now you have to calculate the size (wattage) of the Solar panels required to meet this energy requirement. Here one thing you must keep in mind that, distribution or availability of solar energy is depends on the geographical locations. The usable hours of solar energy available varies from point to point. Isolation map indicates the average monthly/yearly availability of usable sunlight . Here see the Solar Resources map indicates average annual sunlight hours available across various places in India (prepared by Ministry of New and Renewable Energy – Govt of India ) image From the map let’s take an average value of 5 sunlight hours per day. Now we can use the formula Solar panel Wattage = Daily Power requirement / (Average Sunlight Hours x Efficiency of the system) In our case daily power requirement = 5 KWh Average Sunlight Hours = 5 hrs Efficiency of the system = say 80% = 0.8 (Here the conversion losses of inverters, solar charge controllers, battery and wiring are taken ) Now The solar panel wattage requirement = 5/(5×0.8)= 1.25Kilo Watts Per day. This indicates you need 1.25 KW solar panels to meet your complete energy requirements. Solar panels are available in different Wattage/Voltage combinations. Normally low wattage panels (Upto 100Watts) comes with 12 Volt output and High Wattage panels comes with 24 Volts output. If your inverter is above 1 KV, naturally the input battery requirement will be 24 Volts or 48 Volts. In the above quoted example you can use Six to Seven 200 Watts Solar panels are required to generate 1.25 KW power for your complete energy requirement. Solar panels wiring You won’t get a single solar panel to meet the whole power requirement, for that you have to use the suitable combination of multiple panels as per the specification of your system. image As a source of energy, solar panels work as battery. In series connection the voltage of individual panels get added up and current (Wattage) Remains same. For example if you connect two 100 Watts 12 Volt solar panels in series (Positive terminal of the first panel to the negative terminal of second panel) , the net voltage will be 24 Volts but the power remains same (100Watts). In parallel combination of panels the current/wattage added up and the voltage remains same. If you connect two 100 Watts 12 Volt Solar panels in parallel (Positive terminal of first panel to positive terminal of second panels and negative terminal to negative terminal) the power/current get added up and voltage remains same means the net wattage of panels will be 200 Watts 12 Volt. You can use series- parallel combination of multiple panels to meet desired voltage and power requirement. See the figure. If you are planning to install a 1 Kilo Watt plant, then have to go for Five 200 Watts 12 Volts panels and connect the same in parallel. One important thing you must keep in mind that a 200 Watt panel cannot give exact 200 Watt power always. The rated power inscribed on the panel is on Standard Testing Conditions, in practical field conditions, it can go down. Standard Test Conditions indicates mainly the Standard Temperature (25 Degree Celsius) and Solar energy intensity (1000 W/Sq Mtr). Temperature Coefficient of Solar Panels: Power output from Solar panel varies according to the temperature. Normally a 200 Watts Solar panel give the rated output at 25 Degree Celsius. If temperature go above this point say 30 to 35 Degree, power output reduces accordingly. Excessive heat can reduce the output by 10 to 20%. If the temperature coefficient is marked as minus 0.5% per degree in a Solar panel, it indicates the power reduction of 0.5% on every degree raise in temperature over 25 Degree Celsius. In a sunny day if the temperature goes around 45 Degree Centigrade, the power output will be reduced by 10%. Conversely, if temperature come down below 25 Degree, the opposite action take places, means power increases according to the same ratio. Means in the sunny day of winter, a Solar panel will give its optimum output. Power Tolerance of Solar Panels Power tolerance of a Solar Panel is the range of upward or downward variation of power generated with respect to the Standard Power Output. For example, a 250-watt panel with a ±5% power tolerance means under standard test conditions the power generated by the solar panels varies from 237.5 Watts to 262.5 Watts. Go for a panel with minimum power tolerance ratings. Nowadays panels with 3% power tolerance level are available in market. Types of Solar Panels Solar panels are mainly classified in to three . Monocrystaline panels Polycrystalline Panels Thin Film Amorphous panels Monocrystalline Solar Panels Single Crystalline Solar panels of Mono Crystalline Solar panels are the panels which are made of Mono Crystalline Silicon. These panels can be identified by the physical appearance itself. Due to high purity of Silicon colour of these panels are dark blue. Mono Crystalline panels are made of the Wafers sliced from the cylindrical Silicon ingots. See the figure. Mono Crystalline Solar Panel Advantages and Disadvantages of Mono Crystalline Solar Panels. Advantages As Monocrystalline solar panels are made with pure grade of Silicon, efficiency of these type these type of panels are very high, typically 15 to 20%. Less space required. As compared to other type of panels Mono Crystalline panels are space efficient. For a specified power output, space required by these panels are considerably less than thin film and Poly Crystalline panels. Long life- Life of the Mono crystalline panels are very high as compared with other type of panels. Better performance in cooler conditions Disadvantages Mono Crystalline Panels are costly because of high production cost. Partial shading on Mono Crystalline Panels may leads complete power cutoff. Polycrystalline Panels These type of panels use multi crystalline Silicon . Here the raw silicon is melted and molded to make square wafers. Here multiple small crystals make a module. We can identify the Poly Crystalline Solar panels through the physical appearance. Bluish shade distinguish poly crystalline panels from mono crystalline panels . Unlike mono crystalline panels these panels don’t have cut edges. These type of Solar panels are most common in domestic usage. Poly Crystalline Solar PanelsAdvantages Poly Crystalline Solar Panels Due to less production cost, Poly Crystalline Solar Panels are comparatively cheaper. Comparatively better performance in hot conditions Good life span. Disadvantages Less efficient than Mono Crystalline Panels. Not space efficient as compared with Mono Crystalline Panels. More space required for the same rated power. Thin Film Amorphous Solar Panels Thin film solar panels are of relatively new technology solar panels. These type of panels consist of layers of photovoltaic materials about 10 nm thick compared with 200- to 300-nm layers for crystalline-silicon cells. Due to poor efficiency these type of panels are not used for home solar energy applications. Moreover area per wattage requirements of these panels are very high as compared with mono/poly crystalline panels. Type of Mountings You must take extreme care while selecting the panel mounting. Vendors may supply substandard mild steel mounting, which will be rusted rusted and collapsed within a couple of years. You have the choice of Powder coated Mild steel, Galvanized Mild Steel, Aluminium and Stainless steel mountings. Need not to mention that Stainless steel and Aluminium mountings are the best , especially if you are living in coastal area. Batteries for Solar power plant Battery requirement of a Solar power plant is depends upon the Solar Panel wattage and inverter capacity. A 1 Kilowatt solar power plant requires an inverter with a power rating of minimum 1 Kilowatt or more. For a 1 Kilowatt inverter, the operating voltage will be 24 Volts. Hence minimum two 12 Volts batteries in series connection is mandatory. More number of batteries will give more backup, but it requires more charging time too. For a typical 1 Kilowatt Solar home power plant 24 Volts 300 Ah battery bank is considered ideal. Normally Valve Regulated Lead Acid batteries (VRLA) are used in home solar power plants. These batteries are of deep discharge type designed to charge rapidly and can be discharged utpo the minimum level. Normal Automotive lead acid batteries are not suitable for solar inverters. If you are worried about the maintenance of the battery bank, then it is advisable to go for maintenance free sealed lead acid batteries. Cost of SMF batteries are a little bit higher than normal VRLA and tubular batteries. How and where to position solar panels? To get the maximum output from solar panels, it must be positioned at a suitable angle as per the geographical location. Earth’s position of sun varies through out the year, but changing the angle of Solar panels Every time in accordance that is not practicable. If you have a fixed mount, it is advisable to fix the panels at an angle which gives optimum output throughout in al seasons. For getting complete sunlight from sun’s East to West track, solar panels are required to be mounted south facing with angle of tilt as per the season. Life of Solar panels We can see 25 years warranty claims come with every solar panels. This 25 years warranty is a gimmick. Solar panels can live even many more years than this 25 years mark, but the question you must ask after few years say five years how much power it can give. This is the actual warranty/guarantee term. Normally output of Solar panels decreases due to ageing and other environmental factors. Some manufactures assure 99 to 100% output utpo first 10 years. The assurance of 80% power output after 25 years can not be considered as a benchmark. A panel which guarantees 100% power output will be superior than that one. As per MNRE specifications A solar panel must give minimum 90% output upto 10 years and 80% output after 25 Years. Normally the extent of guarantee is the Replenishment of lost power due to ageing only. Space requirement for a home solar power plant For a typical 1 Kilowatt Solar power plant, minimum 100 Square feet shadow free plane area is essential. It can be roof top also. Size of the solar panels varies as per the wattage rating of Solar panels. A 200 watt poly crystalline panel has a dimension of 1.5 Mtr x 1 Mtr x 1 Inch (Length x Width x Thickness). Cost of the panel varies from Rs 60 to 100 per watts. Solar Calculator Applications These Android application will help you to decide the size of home solar power plant as per your energy requirement. https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=uk.co.networkadvice.solarcalc& feature=search_result https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.vistechprojects.solarmeter& feature=search_result At an average how much energy I will get from a 100 Watt solar panel per year? A 100 Watts panel can give maximum 0.5 unit electricity per day. Means per month 15 Units per month. A 1 Kilowatt Solar plant can give 4 to 5 Unit electricity per day. Solar panel efficiency Efficiency – the ration of input solar energy to output electric energy is very much poor in world’s most efficient solar panel. In lab environments maximum achieved energy efficiency is 40% only, but which is far away from the real world situations. Practically the efficiency of off the shelf solar panels varies from 15 to 20% only. What is solar charge controller? Solar charge controller or charge regulator is an essential requirement for a solar energy system. Output from a 100W 12 V solar panel is not always 12 V through out the day. It varies from minimum 12 Volts to Maximum 18 Volt as per the sunlight. Means a 100 Watt Solar panels is designed to cater 100Watt power at an average. Solar charge controllers couples the solar panels with battery by regulating the fluctuating output from solar panels. A good charge controller prevent under and over charging of connected batteries. It prevents the reverse current flow from battery to panels under poor sunlight conditions and night. Additionally charge controllers give protection against battery and panel reverse polarity. Will solar panels work in cloudy, foggy and rainy seasons? Yes, Solar panels work in such bad light conditions also. Solar panels are designed to give the rated output even in poor sunlight conditions also. Here panels give more output than the rated value in good sunlight conditions. What is Solar tracking system? Is it necessary for me? Sun light has two components, direct and diffused. Here direct beam consists 90% of the solar energy. Solar tracker is a mechanical system which keeps the solar panels always facing towards sun . This will increase the overall efficiency of the plant by taping the optimum energy. For normal home solar energy plants, trackers are not necessary and it’s not value for money also. However in big solar plants (Mega watts range) it’s mandatory to extract the full benefit of the system. Can I expand the capacity of the plant by adding more panels in future? Yes you can, your inverter must be compatible for that with suitable ratings. Roof mounting or Ground mounting. Which one is more advisable? Normally people prefer roof mounting because of space constraints and availability of shadow free area. If you have sufficient space in ground, you can install the panels in ground also. In case of roof mounting, the roof must be strong enough to withstand the weight of mounting frame and panels apart from that, it must sustain strong wind also. How to get govt subsidies on Solar systems? Central Govt and State Govt give subsidies for solar energy systems. Normally you will get 30% of the total amount as Central Govt subsidy. Before installing the plant you must apply for that in prescribed format. One thing you must keep in mind that, it will be difficult to get the subsidy after installation without prior approval from the concerned agencies. You have to purchase the items from the MNRE (Ministry of New and Renewable energy) empanelled vendors only. List of Manufacturers empanelled under Capital Subsidy scheme implemented through NABARD (as on 16-06-2013). The list contains contact numbers of all approved vendors across various parts of India. Even though you don’t want to get the subsidy, it is highly advisable to get the system installed from these vendors because they strictly comply with the necessary performance and technical standards. State Nodal Agencies for Minister of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) Go through this list to get the contact information of State wise Nodal centres of MNRE. You must contact the regional/district nodal centres before installing a solar home power plant. Apart from the 30% Central Govt subsidy, many state govts offer additional subsidies and other special schemes to promote alternate energy usage.
A solar inverter, or converter or PV inverter, converts the variable direct current (DC) output of a photovoltaic (PV) solar panel into a utility frequency alternating current (AC) that can be fed into a commercial electrical grid or used by a local, off-grid electrical network. It is a critical balance of system (BOS)–component in a photovoltaic system, allowing the use of ordinary AC-powered equipment. Solar power inverters have special functions adapted for use with photovoltaic arrays, including maximum power point tracking and anti-islanding protection. Contents [hide] 1 Classification 2 Maximum power point tracking 3 Solar micro-inverters 4 Grid tied solar inverters 5 Solar charge controller 6 Solar pumping inverters 7 Market 8 See also 9 References Classification[edit] Simplified schematics of a grid-connected residential photovoltaic power system[1] Solar inverters may be classified into three broad types:[2] Stand-alone inverters, used in isolated systems where the inverter draws its DC energy from batteries charged by photovoltaic arrays. Many stand-alone inverters also incorporate integral battery chargers to replenish the battery from an AC source, when available. Normally these do not interface in any way with the utility grid, and as such, are not required to have anti-islanding protection. Grid-tie inverters, which match phase with a utility-supplied sine wave. Grid-tie inverters are designed to shut down automatically upon loss of utility supply, for safety reasons. They do not provide backup power during utility outages. Battery backup inverters, are special inverters which are designed to draw energy from a battery, manage the battery charge via an onboard charger, and export excess energy to the utility grid. These inverters are capable of supplying AC energy to selected loads during a utility outage, and are required to have anti-islanding protection. Maximum power point tracking[edit] Main article: Maximum power point tracker Solar inverters use maximum power point tracking (MPPT) to get the maximum possible power from the PV array.[3] Solar cells have a complex relationship between solar irradiation, temperature and total resistance that produces a non-linear output efficiency known as the I-V curve. It is the purpose of the MPPT system to sample the output of the cells and determine a resistance (load) to obtain maximum power for any given environmental conditions.[4] The fill factor, more commonly known by its abbreviation FF, is a parameter which, in conjunction with the open circuit voltage (Voc) and short circuit current (Isc) of the panel, determines the maximum power from a solar cell. Fill factor is defined as the ratio of the maximum power from the solar cell to the product of Voc and Isc.[5] There are three main types of MPPT algorithms: perturb-and-observe, incremental conductance and constant voltage.[6] The first two methods are often referred to as hill climbing methods; they rely on the curve of power plotted against voltage rising to the left of the maximum power point, and falling on the right.[7] Solar micro-inverters[edit] Main article: Solar micro-inverter A solar micro-inverter in the process of being installed. The ground wire is attached to the lug and the panel's DC connections are attached to the cables on the lower right. The AC parallel trunk cable runs at the top (just visible). Solar micro-inverter is an inverter designed to operate with a single PV module. The micro-inverter converts the direct current output from each panel into alternating current. Its design allows parallel connection of multiple, independent units in a modular way.[8] Micro-inverter advantages include single panel power optimization, independent operation of each panel, plug-and play installation, improved installation and fire safety, minimized costs with system design and stock minimization. A 2011 study at Appalachian State University reports that individual integrated inverter setup yielded about 20% more power in unshaded conditions and 27% more power in shaded conditions compared to string connected setup using one inverter. Both setups used identical solar panels.[9] Grid tied solar inverters[edit] See also: Grid-tie inverter Solar grid-tie inverters are designed to quickly disconnect from the grid if the utility grid goes down. This is an NEC requirement that ensures that in the event of a blackout, the grid tie inverter will shut down to prevent the energy it produces from harming any line workers who are sent to fix the power grid. Grid-tie inverters that are available on the market today use a number of different technologies. The inverters may use the newer high-frequency transformers, conventional low-frequency transformers, or no transformer. Instead of converting direct current directly to 120 or 240 volts AC, high-frequency transformers employ a computerized multi-step process that involves converting the power to high-frequency AC and then back to DC and then to the final AC output voltage.[10] Historically, there have been concerns about having transformerless electrical systems feed into the public utility grid. The concerns stem from the fact that there is a lack of galvanic isolation between the DC and AC circuits, which could allow the passage of dangerous DC faults to the AC side.[11] Since 2005, the NFPA's NEC allows transformer-less (or non-galvanically) inverters. The VDE 0126-1-1 and IEC 6210 also have been amended to allow and define the safety mechanisms needed for such systems. Primarily, residual or ground current detection is used to detect possible fault conditions. Also isolation tests are performed to ensure DC to AC separation. Many solar inverters are designed to be connected to a utility grid, and will not operate when they do not detect the presence of the grid. They contain special circuitry to precisely match the voltage, frequency and phase of the grid. Solar charge controller[edit] See also: Charge controller A charge controller may be used to power DC equipment with solar panels. The charge controller provides a regulated DC output and stores excess energy in a battery as well as monitoring the battery voltage to prevent under/over charging. More expensive units will also perform maximum power point tracking. An inverter can be connected to the output of a charge controller to drive AC loads. Solar pumping inverters[edit] Advanced solar pumping inverters convert DC voltage from the solar array into AC voltage to drive submersible pumps directly without the need for batteries or other energy storage devices. By utilizing MPPT (maximum power point tracking), solar pumping inverters regulate output frequency to control the speed of the pumps in order to save the pump motor from damage. Solar pumping inverters usually have multiple ports to allow the input of DC current generated by PV arrays, one port to allow the output of AC voltage, and a further port for input from a water-level sensor. Market[edit] As of 2014, conversion efficiency for state-of-the-art solar converters reached more than 98 percent. While string inverters are used in residential to medium-sized commercial PV systems, central inverters cover the large commercial and utility-scale market. Market-share for central and string inverters are about 50 percent and 48 percent, respectively, leaving less than 2 percent to micro-inverters.[12] Inverter/converter market in 2014 Type Power Efficiency(a) Market share(b) Remarks String inverter up to 100 kWp(c) 98% 50% Cost(b) €0.15 per watt-peak. Easy to replace. Central inverter above 100 kWp 98.5% 48% €0.10 per watt-peak. High reliability. Often sold along with a service contract. Micro-inverter module power range 90%–95% 1.5% €0.40 per watt-peak. Ease of replacement concerns. DC/DC converter Power optimizer module power range 98.8% N/A €0.40 per watt-peak. Ease of replacement concerns. Inverter is still needed. About 0.75 GWP installed in 2013. Source: data by IHS 2014, remarks by Fraunhofer ISE 2014, from: Photovoltaics Report, updated as per 8 September 2014, p. 35, PDF[12] Notes: (a)best efficiencies displayed, (b)market-share and cost per watt are estimated, (c)kWp = kilowatt-peak See also[edit] icon Renewable energy portal icon Energy portal Inverter (electrical) Off-the-grid References[edit] Jump up ^ Solar Cells and their Applications Second Edition, Lewis Fraas, Larry Partain, Wiley, 2010, ISBN 978-0-470-44633-1 , Section10.2. Jump up ^ "3 Types of Solar Inverters Explained". do it yourself. Retrieved 15 February 2017. Jump up ^ "Invert your thinking: Squeezing more power out of your solar panels". scientificamerican.com. Retrieved 2011-06-09. Jump up ^ Comparison of Photovoltaic Array Maximum Power Point Tracking Techniques Jump up ^ Benanti, Travis L.; Venkataraman, D. (25 April 2005). "Organic Solar Cells: An Overview Focusing on Active Layer Morphology" (PDF). Photosynthesis Research. 87 (1): 77. doi:10.1007/s11120-005-6397-9. Retrieved 27 August 2013. Jump up ^ "Evaluation of Micro Controller Based Maximum Power Point Tracking Methods Using dSPACE Platform" (PDF). itee.uq.edu.au. Retrieved 2011-06-14. Jump up ^ "Comparative Study of Maximum Power Point Tracking Algorithms". doi:10.1002/pip.459. Jump up ^ http://dspace.mit.edu/bitstream/handle/1721.1/61308/702674669.pdf Jump up ^ "A SIDE-BY-SIDE COMPARISON OF MICRO AND CENTRAL INVERTERS IN SHADED AND UNSHADED CONDITIONS" (PDF). Retrieved 27 August 2013. Jump up ^ Photovoltaics: Design and Installation Manual. Newsociety Publishers. 2004. p. 80. Jump up ^ "Summary Report on the DOE High-tech Inverter Workshop" (PDF). Sponsored by the US Department of Energy, prepared by McNeil Technologies. eere.energy.gov. Retrieved 2011-06-10. ^ Jump up to: a b Fraunhofer ISE report , archived version as per September 2014 (archived PDF)A solar inverter, or converter or PV inverter, converts the variable direct current (DC) output of a photovoltaic (PV) solar panel into a utility frequency alternating current (AC) that can be fed into a commercial electrical grid or used by a local, off-grid electrical network. It is a critical balance of system (BOS)–component in a photovoltaic system, allowing the use of ordinary AC-powered equipment. Solar power inverters have special functions adapted for use with photovoltaic arrays, including maximum power point tracking and anti-islanding protection. Contents [hide] 1 Classification 2 Maximum power point tracking 3 Solar micro-inverters 4 Grid tied solar inverters 5 Solar charge controller 6 Solar pumping inverters 7 Market 8 See also 9 References Classification[edit] Simplified schematics of a grid-connected residential photovoltaic power system[1] Solar inverters may be classified into three broad types:[2] Stand-alone inverters, used in isolated systems where the inverter draws its DC energy from batteries charged by photovoltaic arrays. Many stand-alone inverters also incorporate integral battery chargers to replenish the battery from an AC source, when available. Normally these do not interface in any way with the utility grid, and as such, are not required to have anti-islanding protection. Grid-tie inverters, which match phase with a utility-supplied sine wave. Grid-tie inverters are designed to shut down automatically upon loss of utility supply, for safety reasons. They do not provide backup power during utility outages. Battery backup inverters, are special inverters which are designed to draw energy from a battery, manage the battery charge via an onboard charger, and export excess energy to the utility grid. These inverters are capable of supplying AC energy to selected loads during a utility outage, and are required to have anti-islanding protection. Maximum power point tracking[edit] Main article: Maximum power point tracker Solar inverters use maximum power point tracking (MPPT) to get the maximum possible power from the PV array.[3] Solar cells have a complex relationship between solar irradiation, temperature and total resistance that produces a non-linear output efficiency known as the I-V curve. It is the purpose of the MPPT system to sample the output of the cells and determine a resistance (load) to obtain maximum power for any given environmental conditions.[4] The fill factor, more commonly known by its abbreviation FF, is a parameter which, in conjunction with the open circuit voltage (Voc) and short circuit current (Isc) of the panel, determines the maximum power from a solar cell. Fill factor is defined as the ratio of the maximum power from the solar cell to the product of Voc and Isc.[5] There are three main types of MPPT algorithms: perturb-and-observe, incremental conductance and constant voltage.[6] The first two methods are often referred to as hill climbing methods; they rely on the curve of power plotted against voltage rising to the left of the maximum power point, and falling on the right.[7] Solar micro-inverters[edit] Main article: Solar micro-inverter A solar micro-inverter in the process of being installed. The ground wire is attached to the lug and the panel's DC connections are attached to the cables on the lower right. The AC parallel trunk cable runs at the top (just visible). Solar micro-inverter is an inverter designed to operate with a single PV module. The micro-inverter converts the direct current output from each panel into alternating current. Its design allows parallel connection of multiple, independent units in a modular way.[8] Micro-inverter advantages include single panel power optimization, independent operation of each panel, plug-and play installation, improved installation and fire safety, minimized costs with system design and stock minimization. A 2011 study at Appalachian State University reports that individual integrated inverter setup yielded about 20% more power in unshaded conditions and 27% more power in shaded conditions compared to string connected setup using one inverter. Both setups used identical solar panels.[9] Grid tied solar inverters[edit] See also: Grid-tie inverter Solar grid-tie inverters are designed to quickly disconnect from the grid if the utility grid goes down. This is an NEC requirement that ensures that in the event of a blackout, the grid tie inverter will shut down to prevent the energy it produces from harming any line workers who are sent to fix the power grid. Grid-tie inverters that are available on the market today use a number of different technologies. The inverters may use the newer high-frequency transformers, conventional low-frequency transformers, or no transformer. Instead of converting direct current directly to 120 or 240 volts AC, high-frequency transformers employ a computerized multi-step process that involves converting the power to high-frequency AC and then back to DC and then to the final AC output voltage.[10] Historically, there have been concerns about having transformerless electrical systems feed into the public utility grid. The concerns stem from the fact that there is a lack of galvanic isolation between the DC and AC circuits, which could allow the passage of dangerous DC faults to the AC side.[11] Since 2005, the NFPA's NEC allows transformer-less (or non-galvanically) inverters. The VDE 0126-1-1 and IEC 6210 also have been amended to allow and define the safety mechanisms needed for such systems. Primarily, residual or ground current detection is used to detect possible fault conditions. Also isolation tests are performed to ensure DC to AC separation. Many solar inverters are designed to be connected to a utility grid, and will not operate when they do not detect the presence of the grid. They contain special circuitry to precisely match the voltage, frequency and phase of the grid. Solar charge controller[edit] See also: Charge controller A charge controller may be used to power DC equipment with solar panels. The charge controller provides a regulated DC output and stores excess energy in a battery as well as monitoring the battery voltage to prevent under/over charging. More expensive units will also perform maximum power point tracking. An inverter can be connected to the output of a charge controller to drive AC loads. Solar pumping inverters[edit] Advanced solar pumping inverters convert DC voltage from the solar array into AC voltage to drive submersible pumps directly without the need for batteries or other energy storage devices. By utilizing MPPT (maximum power point tracking), solar pumping inverters regulate output frequency to control the speed of the pumps in order to save the pump motor from damage. Solar pumping inverters usually have multiple ports to allow the input of DC current generated by PV arrays, one port to allow the output of AC voltage, and a further port for input from a water-level sensor. Market[edit] As of 2014, conversion efficiency for state-of-the-art solar converters reached more than 98 percent. While string inverters are used in residential to medium-sized commercial PV systems, central inverters cover the large commercial and utility-scale market. Market-share for central and string inverters are about 50 percent and 48 percent, respectively, leaving less than 2 percent to micro-inverters.[12] Inverter/converter market in 2014 Type Power Efficiency(a) Market share(b) Remarks String inverter up to 100 kWp(c) 98% 50% Cost(b) €0.15 per watt-peak. Easy to replace. Central inverter above 100 kWp 98.5% 48% €0.10 per watt-peak. High reliability. Often sold along with a service contract. Micro-inverter module power range 90%–95% 1.5% €0.40 per watt-peak. Ease of replacement concerns. DC/DC converter Power optimizer module power range 98.8% N/A €0.40 per watt-peak. Ease of replacement concerns. Inverter is still needed. About 0.75 GWP installed in 2013. Source: data by IHS 2014, remarks by Fraunhofer ISE 2014, from: Photovoltaics Report, updated as per 8 September 2014, p. 35, PDF[12] Notes: (a)best efficiencies displayed, (b)market-share and cost per watt are estimated, (c)kWp = kilowatt-peak See also[edit] icon Renewable energy portal icon Energy portal Inverter (electrical) Off-the-grid References[edit] Jump up ^ Solar Cells and their Applications Second Edition, Lewis Fraas, Larry Partain, Wiley, 2010, ISBN 978-0-470-44633-1 , Section10.2. Jump up ^ "3 Types of Solar Inverters Explained". do it yourself. Retrieved 15 February 2017. Jump up ^ "Invert your thinking: Squeezing more power out of your solar panels". scientificamerican.com. Retrieved 2011-06-09. Jump up ^ Comparison of Photovoltaic Array Maximum Power Point Tracking Techniques Jump up ^ Benanti, Travis L.; Venkataraman, D. (25 April 2005). "Organic Solar Cells: An Overview Focusing on Active Layer Morphology" (PDF). Photosynthesis Research. 87 (1): 77. doi:10.1007/s11120-005-6397-9. Retrieved 27 August 2013. Jump up ^ "Evaluation of Micro Controller Based Maximum Power Point Tracking Methods Using dSPACE Platform" (PDF). itee.uq.edu.au. Retrieved 2011-06-14. Jump up ^ "Comparative Study of Maximum Power Point Tracking Algorithms". doi:10.1002/pip.459. Jump up ^ http://dspace.mit.edu/bitstream/handle/1721.1/61308/702674669.pdf Jump up ^ "A SIDE-BY-SIDE COMPARISON OF MICRO AND CENTRAL INVERTERS IN SHADED AND UNSHADED CONDITIONS" (PDF). Retrieved 27 August 2013. Jump up ^ Photovoltaics: Design and Installation Manual. Newsociety Publishers. 2004. p. 80. Jump up ^ "Summary Report on the DOE High-tech Inverter Workshop" (PDF). Sponsored by the US Department of Energy, prepared by McNeil Technologies. eere.energy.gov. Retrieved 2011-06-10. ^ Jump up to: a b Fraunhofer ISE report , archived version as per September 2014 (archived PDF)
What is Reverse Osmosis? Reverse Osmosis is a technology that is used to remove a large majority of contaminants from water by pushing the water under pressure through a semi-permeable membrane. This article is aimed towards an audience that has little or no experience with Reverse Osmosis and will attempt to explain the basics in simple terms that should leave the reader with a better overall understanding of Reverse Osmosis technology and its applications. This article covers the following topics: Understanding Osmosis and Reverse Osmosis How does Reverse Osmosis (RO) work? What contaminants does Reverse Osmosis (RO) remove? Performance and design calculations for Reverse Osmosis (RO) systems Salt Rejection % Salt Passage % Recovery % Concentration Factor Flux Rate Mass Balance Understanding the difference between passes and stages in a Reverse Osmosis (RO) system 1 stage vs 2 stage Reverse Osmosis (RO) system Array Reverse Osmosis (RO) system with a concentrate recycle Single Pass vs Double Pass Reverse Osmosis (RO) systems Pre-treatment for Reverse Osmosis (RO) Fouling Scaling Chemical Attack Mechanical Damage Pre-treatment Solutions for Reverse Osmosis (RO) Multi Media Filtration Microfiltration Antiscalants and scale inhibitors Softening by ion exchange Sodium Bisulfite (SBS) injection Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) Reverse Osmosis (RO) performance trending and data normalization Reverse Osmosis (RO) membrane cleaning Summary Understanding Reverse Osmosis Reverse Osmosis, commonly referred to as RO, is a process where you demineralize or deionize water by pushing it under pressure through a semi-permeable Reverse Osmosis Membrane. Osmosis To understand the purpose and process of Reverse Osmosis you must first understand the naturally occurring process of Osmosis. Osmosis is a naturally occurring phenomenon and one of the most important processes in nature. It is a process where a weaker saline solution will tend to migrate to a strong saline solution. Examples of osmosis are when plant roots absorb water from the soil and our kidneys absorb water from our blood. Below is a diagram which shows how osmosis works. A solution that is less concentrated will have a natural tendency to migrate to a solution with a higher concentration. For example, if you had a container full of water with a low salt concentration and another container full of water with a high salt concentration and they were separated by a semi-permeable membrane, then the water with the lower salt concentration would begin to migrate towards the water container with the higher salt concentration. Osmosis Color A semi-permeable membrane is a membrane that will allow some atoms or molecules to pass but not others. A simple example is a screen door. It allows air molecules to pass through but not pests or anything larger than the holes in the screen door. Another example is Gore-tex clothing fabric that contains an extremely thin plastic film into which billions of small pores have been cut. The pores are big enough to let water vapor through, but small enough to prevent liquid water from passing. Reverse Osmosis is the process of Osmosis in reverse. Whereas Osmosis occurs naturally without energy required, to reverse the process of osmosis you need to apply energy to the more saline solution. A reverse osmosis membrane is a semi-permeable membrane that allows the passage of water molecules but not the majority of dissolved salts, organics, bacteria and pyrogens. However, you need to 'push' the water through the reverse osmosis membrane by applying pressure that is greater than the naturally occurring osmotic pressure in order to desalinate (demineralize or deionize) water in the process, allowing pure water through while holding back a majority of contaminants. Below is a diagram outlining the process of Reverse Osmosis. When pressure is applied to the concentrated solution, the water molecules are forced through the semi-permeable membrane and the contaminants are not allowed through. Reverse Osmosis Color How does Reverse Osmosis work? Reverse Osmosis works by using a high pressure pump to increase the pressure on the salt side of the RO and force the water across the semi-permeable RO membrane, leaving almost all (around 95% to 99%) of dissolved salts behind in the reject stream. The amount of pressure required depends on the salt concentration of the feed water. The more concentrated the feed water, the more pressure is required to overcome the osmotic pressure. The desalinated water that is demineralized or deionized, is called permeate (or product) water. The water stream that carries the concentrated contaminants that did not pass through the RO membrane is called the reject (or concentrate) stream. Ro Membrane 1 As the feed water enters the RO membrane under pressure (enough pressure to overcome osmotic pressure) the water molecules pass through the semi-permeable membrane and the salts and other contaminants are not allowed to pass and are discharged through the reject stream (also known as the concentrate or brine stream), which goes to drain or can be fed back into the feed water supply in some circumstances to be recycled through the RO system to save water. The water that makes it through the RO membrane is called permeate or product water and usually has around 95% to 99% of the dissolved salts removed from it. It is important to understand that an RO system employs cross filtration rather than standard filtration where the contaminants are collected within the filter media. With cross filtration, the solution passes through the filter, or crosses the filter, with two outlets: the filtered water goes one way and the contaminated water goes another way. To avoid build up of contaminants, cross flow filtration allows water to sweep away contaminant build up and also allow enough turbulence to keep the membrane surface clean. What contaminants will Reverse Osmosis remove from water? Reverse Osmosis is capable of removing up to 99%+ of the dissolved salts (ions), particles, colloids, organics, bacteria and pyrogens from the feed water (although an RO system should not be relied upon to remove 100% of bacteria and viruses). An RO membrane rejects contaminants based on their size and charge. Any contaminant that has a molecular weight greater than 200 is likely rejected by a properly running RO system (for comparison a water molecule has a MW of 18). Likewise, the greater the ionic charge of the contaminant, the more likely it will be unable to pass through the RO membrane. For example, a sodium ion has only one charge (monovalent) and is not rejected by the RO membrane as well as calcium for example, which has two charges. Likewise, this is why an RO system does not remove gases such as CO2 very well because they are not highly ionized (charged) while in solution and have a very low molecular weight. Because an RO system does not remove gases, the permeate water can have a slightly lower than normal pH level depending on CO2 levels in the feed water as the CO2 is converted to carbonic acid. Reverse Osmosis is very effective in treating brackish, surface and ground water for both large and small flows applications. Some examples of industries that use RO water include pharmaceutical, boiler feed water, food and beverage, metal finishing and semiconductor manufacturing to name a few. Reverse Osmosis Performance & Design Calculations There are a handful of calculations that are used to judge the performance of an RO system and also for design considerations. An RO system has instrumentation that displays quality, flow, pressure and sometimes other data like temperature or hours of operation. In order to accurately measure the performance of an RO system you need the following operation parameters at a minimum: Feed pressure Permeate pressure Concentrate pressure Feed conductivity Permeate conductivity Feed flow Permeate flow Temperature SALT REJECTION % This equation tells you how effective the RO membranes are removing contaminants. It does not tell you how each individual membrane is performing, but rather how the system overall on average is performing. A well-designed RO system with properly functioning RO membranes will reject 95% to 99% of most feed water contaminants (that are of a certain size and charge). You can determine how effective the RO membranes are removing contaminants by using the following equation: Salt Rejection % = Conductivity of Feed Water – Conductivity of Permeate Water × 100 Conductivity of Feed The higher the salt rejection, the better the system is performing. A low salt rejection can mean that the membranes require cleaning or replacement. SALT PASSAGE % This is simply the inverse of salt rejection described in the previous equation. This is the amount of salts expressed as a percentage that are passing through the RO system. The lower the salt passage, the better the system is performing. A high salt passage can mean that the membranes require cleaning or replacement. Salt Passage % = (1 – Salt Rejection %) RECOVERY % Percent Recovery is the amount of water that is being 'recovered' as good permeate water. Another way to think of Percent Recovery is the amount of water that is not sent to drain as concentrate, but rather collected as permeate or product water. The higher the recovery % means that you are sending less water to drain as concentrate and saving more permeate water. However, if the recovery % is too high for the RO design then it can lead to larger problems due to scaling and fouling. The % Recovery for an RO system is established with the help of design software taking into consideration numerous factors such as feed water chemistry and RO pre-treatment before the RO system. Therefore, the proper % Recovery at which an RO should operate at depends on what it was designed for. By calculating the % Recovery you can quickly determine if the system is operating outside of the intended design. The calculation for % Recovery is below: % Recovery = Permeate Flow Rate (gpm) × 100 Feed Flow Rate (gpm) For example, if the recovery rate is 75% then this means that for every 100 gallons of feed water that enter the RO system, you are recovering 75 gallons as usable permeate water and 25 gallons are going to drain as concentrate. Industrial RO systems typically run anywhere from 50% to 85% recovery depending the feed water characteristics and other design considerations. CONCENTRATION FACTOR The concentration factor is related to the RO system recovery and is an important equation for RO system design. The more water you recover as permeate (the higher the % recovery), the more concentrated salts and contaminants you collect in the concentrate stream. This can lead to higher potential for scaling on the surface of the RO membrane when the concentration factor is too high for the system design and feed water composition. Concentration Factor = 1 1 – Recovery % The concept is no different than that of a boiler or cooling tower. They both have purified water exiting the system (steam) and end up leaving a concentrated solution behind. As the degree of concentration increases, the solubility limits may be exceeded and precipitate on the surface of the equipment as scale. For example, if your feed flow is 100 gpm and your permeate flow is 75 gpm, then the recovery is (75/100) x 100 = 75%. To find the concentration factor, the formula would be 1 ÷ (1-75%) = 4. A concentration factor of 4 means that the water going to the concentrate stream will be 4 times more concentrated than the feed water is. If the feed water in this example was 500 ppm, then the concentrate stream would be 500 x 4 = 2, 000 ppm. FLUX Gfd = gpm of permeate × 1, 440 min/day # of RO elements in system × square footage of each RO element For example, you have the following: The RO system is producing 75 gallons per minute (gpm) of permeate. You have 3 RO vessels and each vessel holds 6 RO membranes. Therefore you have a total of 3 x 6 = 18 membranes. The type of membrane you have in the RO system is a Dow Filmtec BW30-365. This type of RO membrane (or element) has 365 square feet of surface area. To find the flux (Gfd): Gfd = 75 gpm × 1, 440 min/day = 108, 000 18 elements × 365 sq ft 6, 570 The flux is 16 Gfd. This means that 16 gallons of water is passed through each square foot of each RO membrane per day. This number could be good or bad depending on the type of feed water chemistry and system design. Below is a general rule of thumb for flux ranges for different source waters and can be better determined with the help of RO design software. If you had used Dow Filmtec LE-440i RO membranes in the above example, then the flux would have been 14. So it is important to factor in what type of membrane is used and to try and keep the type of membrane consistent throughout the system. Feed Water Source Gfd Sewage Effluent 5-10 Sea Water 8-12 Brackish Surface Water 10-14 Brackish Well Water 14-18 RO Permeate Water 20-30 MASS BALANCE A Mass Balance equation is used to help determine if your flow and quality instrumentation is reading properly or requires calibration. If your instrumentation is not reading correctly, then the performance data trending that you are collecting is useless. You will need to collect the following data from an RO system to perform a Mass Balance calculation: Feed Flow (gpm) Permeate Flow (gpm) Concentrate Flow (gpm) Feed Conductivity (µS) Permeate Conductivity (µS) Concentrate Conductivity (µS) The mass balance equation is: (Feed flow1 x Feed Conductivity) = (Permeate Flow x Permeate Conductivity) + (Concentrate Flow*Concentrate Conductivity) 1Feed Flow equals Permeate Flow + Concentrate Flow For example, if you collected the following data from an RO system: Permeate Flow 5 gpm Feed Conductivity 500 µS Permeate Conductivity 10 µS Concentrate Flow 2 gpm Concentrate Conductivity 1200 µS Then the Mass Balance Equation would be: (7 x 500) = (5 x 10) + (2*1200) 3, 500 ≠ 2, 450 Then find the difference (Difference / Sum) ∗ 100 ((3, 500 - 2, 450) / (3, 500 + 2, 450)) * 100 = 18% A difference of +/- 5% is ok. A difference of +/- 5% to 10% is generally adequate. A difference of > +/- 10% is unacceptable and calibration of the RO instrumentation is required to ensure that you are collecting useful data. In the example above, the RO mass balance equation falls out of range and requires attention. Understanding the difference between passes and stages in a Reverse Osmosis (RO) system The terms stage and pass are often mistaken for the same thing in an RO system and can be confusing terminology for an RO operator. It is important to understand the differnce between a 1 and 2 stage RO and a 1 and 2 pass RO. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A 1 AND 2 STAGE RO SYSTEM In a one stage RO system, the feed water enters the RO system as one stream and exits the RO as either concentrate or permeate water. In a two-stage system the concentrate (or reject) from the first stage then becomes the feed water to the second stage. The permeate water is collected from the first stage is combined with permeate water from the second stage. Additional stages increase the recovery from the system. Ro Membrane One Two Stage ARRAY In a Reverse Osmosis System an array describes the physical arrangement of the pressure vessels in a 2 stage system. Pressure vessels contain RO membranes (usually from 1 to 6 RO membranes are in a pressure vessel). Each stage can have a certain amount of pressure vessels with RO membranes. The reject of each stage then becomes the feed stream for the next successive stage. The 2 stage RO system displayed on the previous page is a 2:1 array which means that the concentrate (or reject) of the first 2 RO vessels is fed to the next 1 vessel. RO SYSTEM WITH CONCENTRATE RECYCLE With an RO system that can't be properly staged and the feed water chemistry allows for it, a concentrate recycle setup can be utilized where a portion of the concentrate stream is fed back to the feed water to the first stage to help increase the system recovery. Ro Concentrate Recycle SINGLE PASS RO VS DOUBLE PASS RO Think of a pass as a stand alone RO system. With this in mind, the difference between a single pass RO system and a double pass RO system is that with a double pass RO, the permeate from the first pass becomes the feed water to the second pass (or second RO) which ends up producing a much higher quality permeate because it has essentially gone through two RO systems. Besides producing a much higher quality permeate, a double pass system also allows the opportunity to remove carbon dioxide gas from the permeate by injecting caustic between the first and second pass. C02 is undesirable when you have mixed bed ion exchange resin beds after the RO. By adding caustic after the first pass, you increase the pH of the first pass permeate water and convert C02 to bicarbonate (HCO3-) and carbonate (CO3-2) for better rejection by the RO membranes in the second pass. This can't be done with a single pass RO because injecting caustic and forming carbonate (CO3-2) in the presence of cations such as calcium will cause scaling of the RO membranes. Ro Membrane Single Double RO Pretreatment Proper pretreatment using both mechanical and chemical treatments is critical for an RO system to prevent fouling, scaling and costly premature RO membrane failure and frequent cleaning requirements. Below is a summary of common problems an RO system experiences due to lack of proper pretreatment. FOULING Fouling occurs when contaminants accumulate on the membrane surface effectively plugging the membrane. There are many contaminants in municipal feed water that are naked to the human eye and harmless for human consumption, but large enough to quickly foul (or plug) an RO system. Fouling typically occurs in the front end of an RO system and results in a higher pressure drop across the RO system and a lower permeate flow. This translates into higher operating costs and eventually the need to clean or replace the RO membranes. Fouling will take place eventually to some extent given the extremely fine pore size of an RO membrane no matter how effective your pretreatment and cleaning schedule is. However, by having proper pretreatment in place, you will minimize the need to address fouling related problems on a regular basis. Fouling can be caused by the following: Particulate or colloidal mater (dirt, silt, clay, etc.) Organics (humic/fulvic acids, etc) Microorganisms (bacteria, etc). Bacteria present one of the most common fouling problems since RO membranes in use today cannot tolerate a disinfectant such as chlorine and thefore microorganisms are often able to thrive and multiply on the membrane surface. They may product biofilms that cover the membrane surface and result in heavy fouling. Breakthrough of filter media upstream of the RO unit. GAC carbon beds and softener beds may develop an under drain leak and if there is not adequate post filtration in place the media can foul the RO system. By performing analytical tests, you can determine if the feed water to your RO has a high potential for fouling. To prevent fouling of an RO system, mechanical filtration methods are used. The most popular methods to prevent fouling are the use of multi-media filters (MMF) or microfiltration (MF). In some cases cartridge filtration will suffice. SCALING As certain dissolved (inorganic) compounds become more concentrated (remember discussion on concentration factor) then scaling can occur if these compounds exceed their solubility limits and precipitate on the membrane surface as scale. The results of scaling are a higher pressure drop across the system, higher salt passage (less salt rejection), low permeate flow and lower permeate water quality. An example of a common scale that tends to form on an RO membrane is calcium carbonate (CaCO3). CHEMICAL ATTACK Modern thin film composite membranes are not tolerant to chlorine or chloramines. Oxidizers such as chlorine will 'burn' holes in the membrane pores and can cause irreparable damage. The result of chemical attack on an RO membrane is a higher permeate flow and a higher salt passage (poorer quality permeate water). This is why microorganism growth on RO membranes tends to foul RO membranes so easily since there is no biocide to prevent its growth. MECHANICAL DAMAGE Part of the pretreatment scheme should be pre and post RO system plumbing and controls. If 'hard starts' occur mechanical damage to the membranes can occur. Likewise, if there is too much backpressure on the RO system then mechanical damage to the RO membranes can also occur. These can be addressed by using variable frequency drive motors to start high pressure pumps for RO systems and by installing check valve(s) and/or pressure relief valves to prevent excessive back pressure on the RO unit that can cause permanent membrane damage. Pretreatment Solutions Below are some pretreatment solutions for RO systems that can help minimize fouling, scaling and chemical attack. MULTI MEDIA FILTRATION (MMF) A Multi-Media Filter is used to help prevent fouling of an RO system. A Multi-Media Filter typically contains three layers of media consisting of anthracite coal, sand and garnet, with a supporting layer of gravel at the bottom. These are the medias of choice because of the differences in size and density. The larger (but lighter) anthracite coal will be on top and the heavier (but smaller) garnet will remain on the bottom. The filter media arrangement allows the largest dirt particles to be removed near the top of the media bed with the smaller dirt particles being retained deeper and deeper in the media. This allows the entire bed to act as a filter allowing much longer filter run times between backwash and more efficient particulate removal. A well-operated Multi-Media Filter can remove particulates down to 15-20 microns. A Multi-Media Filter that uses a coagulant addition (which induces tiny particles to join together to form particles large enough to be filtered) can remove particulates down to 5-10 microns. To put this in perspective, the width of a human hair is around 50 microns. A multi media filter is suggested when the Silt Density Index (SDI) value is greater than 3 or when the turbidity is greater than 0.2 NTU. There is no exact rule, but the above guidelines should be followed to prevent premature fouling of RO membranes. It is important to have a 5 micron cartridge filter placed directly after the MMF unit in the event that the under drains of the MMF fail. This will prevent the MMF media from damaging downstream pumps and fouling the RO system. MICROFILTRATION (MF) Microfiltration (MF) is effective in removing colloidal and bacteria matter and has a pore size of only 0.1-10µm. Microfiltration is helpful in reducing the fouling potential for an RO unit. Membrane configuration can vary between manufacturers, but the "hollow fiber" type is the most commonly used. Typically, the water is pumped from the outside of the fibers, and the clean water is collected from the inside of the fibers. Microfiltration membranes used in potable water applications usually operate in "dead-end" flow. In dead-end flow, all of the water fed to the membrane is filtered through the membrane. A filter cake that must be periodically backwashed from the membrane surface forms. Recovery rates are normally greater than 90 percent on feed water sources which have fairly high quality and low turbidity feeds. ANTISCALANTS AND SCALE INHIBITORS Antiscalants and scale inhibitors, as their name suggests, are chemicals that can be added to feed water before an RO unit to help reduce the scaling potential of the feed water. Antiscalants and scale inhibitors increase the solubility limits of troublesome inorganic compounds. By increasing the solubility limits, you are able to concentrate the salts further than otherwise would be possible and therefore achieve a higher recovery rate and run at a higher concentration factor. Antiscalants and scale inhibitors work by interfering with scale formation and crystal growth. The choice of antiscalant or scale inhibitor to use and the correct dosage depends on the feed water chemistry and RO system design. SOFTENING BY ION EXCHANGE A water softener can be used to help prevent scaling in an RO system by exchanging scale forming ions with non scale forming ions. As with a MMF unit, it is important to have a 5 micron cartridge filter placed directly after the water softener in the event that the under drains of the softener fail. SODIUM BISULFITE (SBS) INJECTION By adding sodium bisulfite (SBS or SMBS), which is a reducer, to the water stream before an RO at the proper dose you can remove residual chlorine. GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON (GAC) GAC is used for both removing organic constituents and residual disinfectants (such as chlorine and chloramines) from water. GAC media is made from coal, nutshells or wood. Activated carbon removes residual chlorine and chloramines by a chemical reaction that involves a transfer of electrons from the surface of the GAC to the residual chlorine or chloramines. The chlorine or chloramines ends up as a chloride ion that is no longer an oxidizer. The disadvantage of using a GAC before the RO unit is that the GAC will remove chlorine quickly at the very top of the GAC bed. This will leave the remainder of the GAC bed without any biocide to kill microorganisms. A GAC bed will absorb organics throughout the bed, which is potential food for bacteria, so eventually a GAC bed can become a breeding ground for bacteria growth which can pass easily to the RO membranes. Likewise, a GAC bed can produce very small carbon fines under some circumstances that have the potential to foul an RO. RO Data Trending and Normalization The RO membranes are the heart of the RO system and certain data points need to be collected to determine the health of the RO membranes. These data points include the system pressures, flows, quality and temperature. Water temperature is directly proportional to pressure. As the water temperature decreases it becomes more viscous and the RO permeate flow will drop as it requires more pressure to push the water through the membrane. Likewise, when the water temperature increases the RO permeate flow will increase. As a result, performance data for an RO system must be normalized so that flow variations are not interpreted as abnormal when no problem exists. The normalized flows, pressures and salt rejection should be calculated, graphed and compared to the baseline data (when the RO was commissioned or after the membranes were cleaned or replaced) to help troubleshoot any problems and also determine when to clean or inspect the membranes for damage. Data normalization helps display the true performance of the RO membranes. As a general rule of thumb, when the normalized change is +/- 15% from the baseline data then you need to take action. If you don't follow this rule then RO membrane cleanings may not be very effective at brining the membranes back to near new performance. RO Membrane Cleaning RO membranes will inevitably require periodic cleaning, anywhere from 1 to 4 times a year depending on the feed water quality. As a general rule, if the normalized pressure drop or the normalized salt passage has increased by 15%, then it is time to clean the RO membranes. If the normalized permeate flow has decreased by 15% then it is also time to clean the RO membranes. You can either clean the RO membranes in place or have them removed from the RO system and cleaned off site by a service company that specializes in this service. It has been proven that offsite membrane cleaning is more effective at providing a better cleaning than onsite cleaning skids. RO membrane cleaning involves low and high pH cleaners to remove contaminants from the membrane. Scaling is addressed with low pH cleaners and organics, colloidal and biofouling are treated with a high pH cleaner. Cleaning RO membranes is not only about using the appropriate chemicals. There are many other factors involved such as flows, water temperature and quality, properly designed and sized cleaning skids and many other factors that an experienced service group must address in order to properly clean RO membranes. Summary Reverse Osmosis is an effective and proven technology to produce water that is suitable for many industrial applications that require demineralized or deionized water. Further post treatment after the RO system such as mixed bed deionization can increase the quality of the RO permeate and make it suitable for the most demanding applications. Proper pretreatment and monitoring of an RO system is crucial to preventing costly repairs and unscheduled maintenance. With the correct system design, maintenance program, and experienced service support, your RO system should provide many years of high purity water.
Extend the back-up of your inverter battery with these 3 useful guidelines! Jan 05 2015 Written by Divya Mishra FacebookTwitter inverter battery maintenance guide Power inverters keep supplying electric current to electrical and electronic devices and keep them running during power cut. The performance and back up of an inverter depends largely on its battery. A battery is the backbone of an inverter. It is responsible for the good performance and long life of your inverter. Just like any other home appliance your inverter and its battery require regular maintenance for effective operation and longer backup life. Below are some useful tips and guidelines to increase the back up of your inverter: Disconnect extra load when not required Increase the backup of inverter battery Power inverters utilize the energy stored in batteries and supply current to the electrical and electronic devices to keep them running during power cut. The more load or devices you use during power failure, more power will be sucked out of batteries and shorter will be the backup period. So, disconnect the extra loads when not required to extend the backup of inverter. Use energy saving devices Energy saving devices Go for energy saving devices to reduce power consumption from inverter batteries. For example, an ordinary bulb uses 75% more energy than a CFL or LED bulb to provide the same amount of light. Similarly a ceiling fan with better copper wiring consumes lesser power than a fan with poor quality winding ( poor quality copper winding increases the resistance and increases the load on inverters). Take good care of inverter batteries Taking care of inverter battery Keep the battery terminals corrosion free and rust free. Rusting and corrosion are bad for battery performance. Rusting in terminals reduces the current flow to and from the battery. This restricted flow of current results in slow battery charging which ultimately reduces battery life and eventually effects your inverter back up. If the terminals get corroded pour hot water + baking soda solution on the corrosive area or use a tooth brush for cleaning. This will remove the corrosion.Once the terminals become corrosion free, apply petroleum jelly on to the terminals, nuts and bolts to avoid future corrosion. Refer to “Why do inverter batteries die earlier than expected”. It is very important to charge the inverter batteries correctly in order to maintain the back up. After installation use battery on a regular basis. If the power cut does not occur, discharge the battery completely once every month and then recharge it. Check the water level of battery every two months. Ensure that the water level is maintained between the maximum and minimum water limit. Always top up the battery with distilled water. Do not use tap water or rain water as it contains excess minerals and impurities which affect the life and performance of the battery. Change the batteries of your inverter if they are worn out. Over time batteries lose their designed capacity thus reducing the backup. Buy good quality batteries that will last longer and also guarantee the correct charge storage capacity. Poor quality batteries fail prematurely and do not offer sufficient backup. Maintenance free or sealed batteries are best suited as these won’t leak the electrolyte. There are other types of batteries as well like lithium batteries which can be used for back up. Tubular batteries are the most efficient batteries. They have a complex design, great efficiency, longer operational life (8+ years) and low maintenance. READ ALSO: 6 common problems with your air conditioner For more information on inverters and their battery maintenance refer to “8 useful tips to take care of your inverter battery” and “How to choose the right inverter and battery for your home” If you are facing the problem of inverter back up, book a case for battery back up problem with Mr. Right. (Picture source: www.core0.staticworld.net) About Latest Posts Divya Mishra An avid writer and Market Researcher by profession, Divya is more a proud Boilermaker than anything! She holds an MBA in Marketing from Purdue University USA. Before taking over Operations & Public Relations at Mr Right in last summer, Divya was working with Nielsen where she helped Fortune 500 Clients including PepsiCo, Philip Morris's Marlboro, Nestle, ITC, and more, in successfully launching their products in the consumer market. She is also a seasoned Business Analyst and an ex-Software Engineer. 8 useful tips to take care of your inverter battery! Sep 05 2014 Written by Divya Mishra FacebookTwitter Improving performance of inverter battery Battery is the backbone of an inverter. It is responsible for the good performance and long life of your inverter. Therefore regular maintenance and care of the battery is very crucial. Just like any other home appliance your inverter and its battery require regular maintenance for effective operation and longer life. Though they do not beautify your home like your steel coating double door refrigerator or your black shiny microwave, but they do help you live comfortably in the most difficult time i.e. power cut. Inverter battery cleaning tips Here are some battery maintenance tips: Always use a well ventilated area for inverter installation. The inverter battery gets heated up during charging and operation. An airy place reduces the heating up of the battery.It also reduces the frequent water topping requirement. After installation use battery on a regular basis. If the power cut does not occur, discharge the battery completely once every month and then recharge it. Check the water level of battery every two months. Ensure that the water level is maintained between the maximum and minimum water limit. Always top up the battery with distilled water. Do not use tap water or rain water as it contains excess minerals and impurities which affect the life and performance of the battery. Always keep the surface and sides of battery clean and dust free. Use cotton cloth to clean these surfaces. Keep the battery terminals corrosion free and rust free. If the terminals get corroded pour hot water + baking soda solution on the corrosive area or use a tooth brush for cleaning. This will remove the corrosion.Once the terminals become corrosion free, apply petroleum jelly or Vaseline on to the terminals, nuts and bolts to avoid future corrosion. Rusting and corrosion are very bad for battery performance. Rusting in terminals reduces the current flow to and from from the battery. This restricted flow of current results in slow battery charging which ultimately reduces battery life. Be careful that the vents around battery are dust free and open. Blocked vents lead to hydrogen gas accumulation , which may lead to bursting of battery. From safety point of view, install the inverter at safe places in your home which is out of the reach of children or a less used area. But at the same time make sure that it is airy and properly ventilated. Replace your battery if it is dead or damaged. Regular inspection will keep you updated on your inverter and battery conditions. READ ALSO: 4 Common problems with LED TV and their diagnosis (Source of writing: Information available on the websites of various inverter battery manufactures) It is very important that you use correct battery as per requirement (called battery capacity). Make sure that you always use battery with proper Ah (Ampere hour) capacity based on your requirement.For more information on choosing the right battery refer to article “How to choose right inverter & battery for your home“. If you don’t want to clean battery yourself (as it is a task in itself) you can always call for professional help. So friends for battery check up, battery water top-up, battery change, battery terminal cleaning connect with Mr.Right. (Cover Picture Source: www.pad3.whstatic.com) About Latest Posts Divya Mishra An avid writer and Market Researcher by profession, Divya is more a proud Boilermaker than anything! She holds an MBA in Marketing from Purdue University USA. Before taking over Operations & Public Relations at Mr Right in last summer, Divya was working with Nielsen where she helped Fortune 500 Clients including PepsiCo, Philip Morris's Marlboro, Nestle, ITC, and more, in successfully launching their products in the consumer market. She is also a seasoned Business Analyst and an ex-Software Engineer.
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"Inverter" redirects here. For the logic gate, see Inverter (logic gate). For other uses, see Inverter (disambiguation). This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (October 2011) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) An inverter on a free-standing solar plant Overview of solar-plant inverters A power inverter, or inverter, is an electronic device or circuitry that changes direct current (DC) to alternating current (AC).[1] The input voltage, output voltage and frequency, and overall power handling depend on the design of the specific device or circuitry. The inverter does not produce any power; the power is provided by the DC source. A power inverter can be entirely electronic or may be a combination of mechanical effects (such as a rotary apparatus) and electronic circuitry. Static inverters do not use moving parts in the conversion process. Contents [hide] 1 Input and output 1.1 Input voltage 1.2 Output waveform 1.2.1 Square wave 1.2.2 Sine wave 1.2.3 Modified sine wave 1.2.4 Other waveforms 1.3 Output frequency 1.4 Output voltage 1.5 Output power 2 Batteries 3 Applications 3.1 DC power source usage 3.2 Uninterruptible power supplies 3.3 Electric motor speed control 3.3.1 In refrigeration compressors 3.4 Power grid 3.5 Solar 3.6 Induction heating 3.7 HVDC power transmission 3.8 Electroshock weapons 3.9 Miscellaneous 4 Circuit description 4.1 Basic design 4.2 Advanced designs 4.3 More on achieving a sine wave 4.3.1 Enhanced quantization 4.4 Three-phase inverters 5 Size 6 History 6.1 Early inverters 6.2 Controlled rectifier inverters 6.3 Rectifier and inverter pulse numbers 6.4 Other notes 7 Research 8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links Input and output[edit] Input voltage[edit] A typical power inverter device or circuit requires a relatively stable DC power source capable of supplying enough current for the intended power demands of the system. The input voltage depends on the design and purpose of the inverter. Examples include: 12 VDC, for smaller consumer and commercial inverters that typically run from a rechargeable 12 V lead acid battery or automotive electrical outlet.[2] 24, 36 and 48 VDC, which are common standards for home energy systems. 200 to 400 VDC, when power is from photovoltaic solar panels. 300 to 450 VDC, when power is from electric vehicle battery packs in vehicle-to-grid systems. Hundreds of thousands of volts, where the inverter is part of a high-voltage direct current power transmission system. Output waveform[edit] An inverter can produce a square wave, modified sine wave, pulsed sine wave, pulse width modulated wave (PWM) or sine wave depending on circuit design. The two dominant commercialized waveform types of inverters as of 2007 are modified sine wave and sine wave. There are two basic designs for producing household plug-in voltage from a lower-voltage DC source, the first of which uses a switching boost converter to produce a higher-voltage DC and then converts to AC. The second method converts DC to AC at battery level and uses a line-frequency transformer to create the output voltage.[3] Square wave Square wave[edit] This is one of the simplest waveforms an inverter design can produce and is best suited to low-sensitivity applications such as lighting and heating. Square wave output can produce "humming" when connected to audio equipment and is generally unsuitable for sensitive electronics. Sine wave Sine wave[edit] A power inverter device which produces a multiple step sinusoidal AC waveform is referred to as a sine wave inverter. To more clearly distinguish the inverters with outputs of much less distortion than the modified sine wave (three step) inverter designs, the manufacturers often use the phrase pure sine wave inverter. Almost all consumer grade inverters that are sold as a "pure sine wave inverter" do not produce a smooth sine wave output at all, [citation needed] just a less choppy output than the square wave (two step) and modified sine wave (three step) inverters. However, this is not critical for most electronics as they deal with the output quite well. Where power inverter devices substitute for standard line power, a sine wave output is desirable because many electrical products are engineered to work best with a sine wave AC power source. The standard electric utility provides a sine wave, typically with minor imperfections but sometimes with significant distortion. Sine wave inverters with more than three steps in the wave output are more complex and have significantly higher cost than a modified sine wave, with only three steps, or square wave (one step) types of the same power handling. Switch-mode power supply (SMPS) devices, such as personal computers or DVD players, function on quality modified sine wave power. AC motors directly operated on non-sinusoidal power may produce extra heat, may have different speed-torque characteristics, or may produce more audible noise than when running on sinusoidal power. Modified sine wave[edit] The modified sine wave output of such an inverter is the sum of two square waves one of which is phase shifted 90 degrees relative to the other. The result is three level waveform with equal intervals of zero volts; peak positive volts; zero volts; peak negative volts and then zero volts. This sequence is repeated. The resultant wave very roughly resembles the shape of a sine wave. Most inexpensive consumer power inverters produce a modified sine wave rather than a pure sine wave. The waveform in commercially available modified-sine-wave inverters resembles a square wave but with a pause during the polarity reversal.[3] Switching states are developed for positive, negative and zero voltages. Generally, the peak voltage to RMS voltage ratio does not maintain the same relationship as for a sine wave. The DC bus voltage may be actively regulated, or the "on" and "off" times can be modified to maintain the same RMS value output up to the DC bus voltage to compensate for DC bus voltage variations. The ratio of on to off time can be adjusted to vary the RMS voltage while maintaining a constant frequency with a technique called pulse width modulation (PWM). The generated gate pulses are given to each switch in accordance with the developed pattern to obtain the desired output. Harmonic spectrum in the output depends on the width of the pulses and the modulation frequency. When operating induction motors, voltage harmonics are usually not of concern; however, harmonic distortion in the current waveform introduces additional heating and can produce pulsating torques.[4] Numerous items of electric equipment will operate quite well on modified sine wave power inverter devices, especially loads that are resistive in nature such as traditional incandescent light bulbs. Items with a switch-mode power supply operate almost entirely without problems, but if the item has a mains transformer, this can overheat depending on how marginally it is rated. However, the load may operate less efficiently owing to the harmonics associated with a modified sine wave and produce a humming noise during operation. This also affects the efficiency of the system as a whole, since the manufacturer's nominal conversion efficiency does not account for harmonics. Therefore, pure sine wave inverters may provide significantly higher efficiency than modified sine wave inverters. Most AC motors will run on MSW inverters with an efficiency reduction of about 20% owing to the harmonic content. However, they may be quite noisy. A series LC filter tuned to the fundamental frequency may help.[5] A common modified sine wave inverter topology found in consumer power inverters is as follows: An onboard microcontroller rapidly switches on and off power MOSFETs at high frequency like ~50 kHz. The MOSFETs directly pull from a low voltage DC source (such as a battery). This signal then goes through step-up transformers (generally many smaller transformers are placed in parallel to reduce the overall size of the inverter) to produce a higher voltage signal. The output of the step-up transformers then gets filtered by capacitors to produce a high voltage DC supply. Finally, this DC supply is pulsed with additional power MOSFETs by the microcontroller to produce the final modified sine wave signal. Other waveforms[edit] By definition there is no restriction on the type of AC waveform an inverter might produce that would find use in a specific or special application. Output frequency[edit] The AC output frequency of a power inverter device is usually the same as standard power line frequency, 50 or 60 hertz If the output of the device or circuit is to be further conditioned (for example stepped up) then the frequency may be much higher for good transformer efficiency. Output voltage[edit] The AC output voltage of a power inverter is often regulated to be the same as the grid line voltage, typically 120 or 240 VAC at the distribution level, even when there are changes in the load that the inverter is driving. This allows the inverter to power numerous devices designed for standard line power. Some inverters also allow selectable or continuously variable output voltages. Output power[edit] A power inverter will often have an overall power rating expressed in watts or kilowatts. This describes the power that will be available to the device the inverter is driving and, indirectly, the power that will be needed from the DC source. Smaller popular consumer and commercial devices designed to mimic line power typically range from 150 to 3000 watts. Not all inverter applications are solely or primarily concerned with power delivery; in some cases the frequency and or waveform properties are used by the follow-on circuit or device. Batteries[edit] The runtime of an inverter is dependent on the battery power and the amount of power being drawn from the inverter at a given time. As the amount of equipment using the inverter increases, the runtime will decrease. In order to prolong the runtime of an inverter, additional batteries can be added to the inverter.[6] When attempting to add more batteries to an inverter, there are two basic options for installation: Series configuration If the goal is to increase the overall voltage of the inverter, one can daisy chain batteries in a series configuration. In a series configuration, if a single battery dies, the other batteries will not be able to power the load. Parallel configuration If the goal is to increase capacity and prolong the runtime of the inverter, batteries can be connected in parallel. This increases the overall ampere-hour (Ah) rating of the battery set. If a single battery is discharged though, the other batteries will then discharge through it. This can lead to rapid discharge of the entire pack, or even an over-current and possible fire. To avoid this, large paralleled batteries may be connected via diodes or intelligent monitoring with automatic switching to isolate an under-voltage battery from the others. Applications[edit] DC power source usage[edit] Inverter designed to provide 115 VAC from the 12 VDC source provided in an automobile. The unit shown provides up to 1.2 amperes of alternating current, or enough to power two sixty watt light bulbs. An inverter converts the DC electricity from sources such as batteries or fuel cells to AC electricity. The electricity can be at any required voltage; in particular it can operate AC equipment designed for mains operation, or rectified to produce DC at any desired voltage. Uninterruptible power supplies[edit] An uninterruptible power supply (UPS) uses batteries and an inverter to supply AC power when mains power is not available. When mains power is restored, a rectifier supplies DC power to recharge the batteries. Electric motor speed control[edit] Inverter circuits designed to produce a variable output voltage range are often used within motor speed controllers. The DC power for the inverter section can be derived from a normal AC wall outlet or some other source. Control and feedback circuitry is used to adjust the final output of the inverter section which will ultimately determine the speed of the motor operating under its mechanical load. Motor speed control needs are numerous and include things like: industrial motor driven equipment, electric vehicles, rail transport systems, and power tools. (See related: variable-frequency drive ) Switching states are developed for positive, negative and zero voltages as per the patterns given in the switching Table 1.The generated gate pulses are given to each switch in accordance with the developed pattern and thus the output is obtained. In refrigeration compressors[edit] An inverter can be used to control the speed of the compressor motor to drive variable refrigerant flow in a refrigeration or air conditioning system to regulate system performance. Such installations are known as inverter compressors. Traditional methods of refrigeration regulation use single-speed compressors switched on and off periodically; inverter-equipped systems have a variable-frequency drive that control the speed of the motor and thus the compressor and cooling output. The variable-frequency AC from the inverter drives a brushless or induction motor, the speed of which is proportional to the frequency of the AC it is fed, so the compressor can be run at variable speeds—eliminating compressor stop-start cycles increases efficiency. A microcontroller typically monitors the temperature in the space to be cooled, and adjusts the speed of the compressor to maintain the desired temperature. 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Coimbatore West S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Commercial Tax Office Building S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Dasanaicken Palayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Dasanur B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Deenampalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Deepalapatti B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Devambadi B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Devanampalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Devanurpudur B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Devarayapuram B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Devarayapuram B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Devenampalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Dhaliyur B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Dhully B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Divansapudur B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Doddampatti B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Doddampatti B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Eachanari B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Edayapalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Edayarpalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Elavanthi B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Elayamuthur B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Ellapalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Elur B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Eripalayam S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Eripatti B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Erisinampatti B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Ettimadai B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Ganapathipalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Ganapathipalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Ganapathy S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Gandhi Market S.O (Coimbatore) Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Gandhimaanagar S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Gandhinagar S.O (Coimbatore) Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Gandhinagar S.O (Pollachi) Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Gandhipuram S.O (Coimbatore) Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Ganesapuram B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Ganganaickenpalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Giddampalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Gnanambika Mills S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Golenpet B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Gomangalam S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Govt.College Of Technology S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Gudalur-coimbatore B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Gudimangalam S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in High Forest B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Ichipatti B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Idigarai B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Iduvampalayam S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Iduvoi B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Ikkarai Boluvampatti B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Illuppapalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Irugur S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Ittiveerampalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Iyerpadi S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in J.Krishnapuram B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Jadayampalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Jakkarpalayam S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Jakkirnaickenpalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Jalakarichal B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Jallipatti B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Jallipatti B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Jothampatti B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Jothipuram S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in K.Ayyampalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Kadampadi B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Kadamparai Power House B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Kadathur B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Kaduvettipalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Kakkadavoo B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Kalampalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Kalapatti S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Kaliapuram B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Kaliapuram B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Kalingal B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Kallampalayam Road B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Kallapalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Kallapuram B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Kallar B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Kallipalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Kallivelampatti B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Kamanaickenpalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Kamatchipuram B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Kambalapatti B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Kammalapatti B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Kandegounden Salai B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Kandiankoil B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Kangayampalayam S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Kaniyur S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Kaniyur-palladam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Kanjampatti B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Kanjapalli B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Kannakkampalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Kannamanaickanur B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Kannampalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Kanur B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Kappalankarai B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Karadibavi S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Karamadai S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Karamalai Bazaar S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Karatholuvu B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Karavalimadapur B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Karavalur S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Karegoundenpalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Kariampalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Karukkampalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Karukkankattupudur B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Karukkankattupudur B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Karumathampatti S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Karunampathi B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Karunyanagar S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Karuppampalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Karuvampalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Kathankanni B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Kattampatti B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Kattampatti-coimbatore B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Katturpalldam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Kavundampalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Kavundampalayam Colony S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Keeranatham B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Kettanur S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Kinathukadavoo S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Kodangipalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Kodingium B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Kolarpatti B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Kolumam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Komaralingam S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Komarapalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Komarapalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Komarapalayam Coimbatore S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Konavaikalpalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Kondampatti B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Kondampatti B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Kondayampalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Kondegoundenpalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Kongalnagaram B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Korangumudi B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Kothavadi B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Kottaipalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Kottamangalam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Kovaipudur S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Kovilpalayam S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Krishnapuram S.O (Coimbatore) Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Krishnarayapuram B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Krishnaswamy Nagar S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Ksn Puram S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Kumarnagar S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Kumittipathi B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Kuniamuthur S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Kunnathurpudur B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Kuppaipalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Kuppakonanpudur S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Kuppandampalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Kuppanur B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Kuppanur B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Kuralkuttai B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Kurichikottai S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Kurumbapalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Kurumbapalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Kurunallipalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Kuttagam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Lakshmapuram B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Lakshminaickenpalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Lawley Road S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Madampatti B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Madapur B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Madathukulam S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Madhvarayapuram B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Madukkarai Cusba B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Madukkarai S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Mahadevapuram S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Mahalinga Puram S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Makkinaicken Patti S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Malayadipalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Malayandipattinam S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Malumichampatti S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Manamboli B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Mandiripalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Mangalakaraipudur B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Mangalam S.O (Coimbatore) Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Mangarasavalayapalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Maniakarampalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Mannarai B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Mannur B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Manupatti B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Manur B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Mappillaigoundenpudur B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Marapettai S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Marappagoundenpudur B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Marudamalai B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Marudur B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Maruduraiyanvalasu B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Masagoundenchettipalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Masthigoundenpathi B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Mathipalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Medur B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Meenakshipuram B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Merkupathi B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Metrathi B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Mettubavi B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Mettupalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Mettupalayam Bazaar S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Mettupalayam H.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Minparai B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Mohavanur B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Moongiltholuvu B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Moperipalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Mount Stuart B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Mudalipalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Mudis S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Munduvelampatti B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Muriandampalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Murugali Bazaar B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Muthanampalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Muthugoundenpudur B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Muthur B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Mylampatti B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Myleripalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Myvadi B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in N.G.G.O Colony S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in N.G.M College S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Nachipalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Nagammapudur B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Naickenpalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Nallamudi B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Nallannagoundanpudur B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Nallattipalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Nallichettipalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Nallur B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Nalluthukuli B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Nambiampalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Nanjundapuram S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Nanjundapuram-tadagam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Naranapuram B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Narasimhanaickenpalayam S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Narasipuram B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Nathagoundenpalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Nathegoundenpudur B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Navamalai Camp B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Neelikonampalayam S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Negamam S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Nellithurai B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Ngr Road S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Nilambur B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Nirar Dam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Odayakulam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Odayampalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Oddarpalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Odderpalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Old Valparai B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Ondipudur S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Othakkalmandapam S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in P& t Staff Quarters B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in P.Vadugapalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Pachapalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Paduvampalli B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Palanigoundenpudur B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Palapatti B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Palarpathy B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Palathurai B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Palladam S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Pallapalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Pallapalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Pallikalipalayam S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Panapatti B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Panickampatti B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Pannimadai B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Pannimade B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Pappampatti B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Pappanaickenpalayam S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Pappanaickenpalayam West S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Pappanaickenpudur S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Pappanampatti B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Pappankulam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Pappankulam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Paralai B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Paralipower House B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Paruvoi B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Pasur-avanashi B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Pathanjalipuri B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Pattampalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Pattanam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Pedappampatti S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Peedampalli B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Peelamedu East S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Peelamedu S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Periakallipatti B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Periakomarapalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Periapatti B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Periapodu B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Periaputhur B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Periya Kallar B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Periyakuyilai B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Periyanaickenpalayam S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Periyayipalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Perumanallur S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Peruntholuvu B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Perur Chettipalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Perur S.O (Coimbatore) Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Pethanaickanur B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Pichampalayampudur B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Pichanur B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Pilliappampalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Pillurdam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Pn Road S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Podanur Newtown S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Podanur S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Pogalur S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Pollachi Bazaar S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Pollachi H.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Pollachi RS S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Pollachi West B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Pongalur S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Pongupalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Ponnegoundenpudur B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Poomalur B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Poosaripatti B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Poravipalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Pudupalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Pudupalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Pukkulam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Pulankinar S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Pulavadi S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Puliamarathupalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Puliampatti B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Puliampatti B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Puliyakulam S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Puluvapatti B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Puluvapatti B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Pungamuthur S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Purandampalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in R.Ponnapuram B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in R.S.Puram East S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in R.S.Puram South S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in R.S.Puram West S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Rakkiapalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Rakkipalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Ramachandrapuram B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Ramanamudali Pudur B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Ramanathapuram B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Ramanathapuram Coimbatore S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Ramapattinam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Ramnagar Coimbatore S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Ranganathapuram S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Rasipalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Rathinapuri S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Rathinasabapathy Puram H.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Ravanapuram B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Ravathur B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Reddiarur B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Redfields S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Rudrapalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in S.Ayyampalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in S.B.Institute S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Sahs College S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Saibaba Mission S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Samalapuram B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Samarayapatti B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Samathur S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Samichettipalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Saravanampatti S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Sarkarkannadipudur B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Sarkarpathi B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Sarkarsamakulam S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Seelakkampatti B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Seeliyur S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Seeranaickenpalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Selvapuram B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Sembianallur B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Semmandampalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Semmedu B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Sengalipalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Senguttaipalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Senjellappagoundenpudur B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Senjeri B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Senjeriputhur B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Sethumadai S.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Settiakkapalayam B.O Coimbatore Luminous inverter battery dealers in Sheikalmudi B.O 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What is the function of Inverter?..... Best Answer: An inverter is an electrical device that converts direct current (DC) to alternating current (AC); the resulting AC can be at any required voltage and frequency with the use of appropriate transformers, switching, and control circuits. Static inverters have no moving parts and are used in a wide range of applications, from small switching power supplies in computers, to large electric utility high-voltage direct current applications that transport bulk power. Inverters are commonly used to supply AC power from DC sources such as solar panels or batteries. The primary function of an inverter is to convert Direct Current (DC) power into standard, Alternating Current (AC). This is because, whereas AC is the power supplied to industry and homes by the main power grid or public utility, the batteries of alternating power systems store only DC power. Moreover, virtually all household appliances and other electrical fixtures and equipment depend solely on AC power to perform. What is an inverter? Photo of a typical power inverter made by Xantrex/Trace Engineering. Photo: A typical electricity inverter. This one is made by Xantrex/Trace Engineering. Photo by Warren Gretz courtesy of US Department of Energy/NREL (DoE/NREL). One of Tesla's legacies (and that of his business partner George Westinghouse, boss of the Westinghouse Electrical Company) is that most of the appliances we have in our homes are specifically designed to run from AC power. Appliances that need DC but have to take power from AC outlets need an extra piece of equipment called a rectifier, typically built from electronic components called diodes, to convert from AC to DC. An inverter does the opposite job and it's quite easy to understand the essence of how it works. Suppose you have a battery in a flashlight and the switch is closed so DC flows around the circuit, always in the same direction, like a race car around a track. Now what if you take the battery out and turn it around. Assuming it fits the other way, it'll almost certainly still power the flashlight and you won't notice any difference in the light you get—but the electric current will actually be flowing the opposite way. Suppose you had lightning-fast hands and were deft enough to keep reversing the battery 50–60 times a second. You'd then be a kind of mechanical inverter, turning the battery's DC power into AC at a frequency of 50–60 hertz. Of course the kind of inverters you buy in electrical stores don't work quite this way, though some are indeed mechanical: they use electromagnetic switches that flick on and off at high speed to reverse the current direction. Inverters like this often produce what's known as a square-wave output: the current is either flowing one way or the opposite way or it's instantly swapping over between the two states: Diagram of simple square wave pattern. These kind of sudden power reversals are quite brutal for some forms of electrical equipment. In normal AC power, the current gradually swaps from one direction to the other in a sine-wave pattern, like this: Diagram of simple sine wave pattern. Electronic inverters can be used to produce this kind of smoothly varying AC output from a DC input. They use electronic components called inductors and capacitors to make the output current rise and fall more gradually than the abrupt, on/off-switching square wave output you get with a basic inverter. Inverters can also be used with transformers to change a certain DC input voltage into a completely different AC output voltage (either higher or lower) but the output power must always be less than the input power: it follows from the conservation of energy that an inverter and transformer can't give out more power than they take in and some energy is bound to be lost as heat as electricity flows through the various electrical and electronic components. In practice, the efficiency of an inverter is often over 90 percent, though basic physics tells us some energy—however little—is always being wasted somewhere! How does an inverter work? We've just had a very basic overview of inverters—and now let's go over it again in a little bit more detail. Imagine you're a DC battery and someone taps you on the shoulder and asks you to produce AC instead. How would you do it? If all the current you produce flows out in one direction, what about adding a simple switch to your output lead? Switching your current on and off, very rapidly, would give pulses of direct current—which would do at least half the job. To make proper AC, you'd need a switch that allowed you to reverse the current completely and do it about 50‐60 times every second. Visualize yourself as a human battery swapping your contacts back and forth over 3000 times a minute. That's some neat fingerwork you'd need! In essence, an old-fashioned mechanical inverter boils down to a switching unit connected to an electricity transformer. If you've studied our article on transformers, you'll know that they're electromagnetic devices that change low-voltage AC to high-voltage AC, or vice-versa, using two coils of wire (called the primary and secondary) wound around a common iron core. In a mechanical inverter, either an electric motor or some other kind of automated switching mechanism flips the incoming direct current back and forth in the primary, simply by reversing the contacts, and that produces alternating current in the secondary—so it's not so very different from the imaginary inverter I sketched out above. The switching device works a bit like the one in an electric doorbell. When the power is connected, it magnetizes the switch, pulling it open and switching it off very briefly. A spring pulls the switch back into position, turning it on again and repeating the process—over and over again. Simple animation illustrating the concept of a DC to AC power inverter Animation: The basic concept of an electromechanical inverter. DC feeds into the primary winding (pink zig-zag wires on the left side) of a toroidal transformer (brown donut), through a spinning plate (red and blue) with criss-cross connections. As the plate rotates, it repeatedly switches over the connections to the primary winding, so the transformer is receiving AC as its input instead of DC. This is a step-up transformer with more windings in the secondary (yellow zig-zag, right-hand side) than the primary, so it boosts a small AC input voltage into a larger AC output. The speed at which the disk rotates governs the frequency of the AC output. Most inverters don't work anything like this; this simply illustrates the concept. An inverter set up this way would produce a very rough square wave output. Types of inverters If you simply switch a DC current on and off, or flip it back and forth so its direction keeps reversing, what you end up with is very abrupt changes of current: all in one direction, all in the other direction, and back again. Draw a chart of the current (or voltage) against time and you'll get a square wave. Although electricity varying in that fashion is, technically, an alternating current, it's not at all like the alternating current supplied to our homes, which varies in a much more smoothly undulating sine wave). Generally speaking, hefty appliances in our homes that use raw power (things like electric heaters, incandescent lamps, kettles, or fridges) don't much care what shape wave they receive: all they want is energy and lots of it—so square waves really don't bother them. Electronic devices, on the other hand, are much more fussy and prefer the smoother input they get from a sine wave. This explains why inverters come in two distinct flavors: true/pure sine wave inverters (often shortened to PSW) and modified/quasi sine wave inverters (shortened to MSW). As their name suggests, true inverters use what are called toroidal (donut-shaped) transformers and electronic circuits to transform direct current into a smoothly varying alternating current very similar to the kind of genuine sine wave normally supplied to our homes. They can be used to power any kind of AC appliance from a DC source, including TVs, computers, video games, radios, and stereos. Modified sine wave inverters, on the other hand, use relatively inexpensive electronics ( thyristors, diodes, and other simple components) to produce a kind of "rounded-off" square wave (a much rougher approximation to a sine wave) and while they're fine for delivering power to hefty electric appliances, they can and do cause problems with delicate electronics (or anything with an electronic or microprocessor controller). Also, if you think about it, their rounded-off square waves are delivering more power to the appliance overall than a pure sine wave (there's more area under a square than a curve), so there's some risk of overheating with MSW inverters. On the positive side, they tend to be quite a bit cheaper than true inverters and often work more efficiently (which is important if you want to run something off a battery with a limited charge—because it will run for longer). Although many inverters work as standalone units, with battery storage, that are totally independent from the grid, others (known as utility-interactive inverters or grid-tied inverters) are specifically designed to be connected to the grid all the time; typically they're used to send electricity from something like a solar panel back to the grid at exactly the right voltage and frequency. That's fine if your main objective is to generate your own power. It's not so helpful if you want to be independent of the grid sometimes or you want a backup power source in case of an outage, because if your connection to the grid goes down, and you're not making any electricity of your own (for example, it's night-time and your solar panels are inactive), the inverter goes down too, and you're completely without power—as helpless as you would be whether you were generating your own power or not. For this reason, some people use bimodal or birectional inverters, which can either work in standalone or grid-tied mode (though not both at the same time). Since they have extra bits and pieces, they tend to be more bulky and more expensive. Nikola Tesla, black and white wood engraving c.1906 Caption: Nikola Tesla. Although he won the war of the currents, his rival Thomas Edison is still remembered as the pioneer of electric power. Wood engraving of Tesla by Sarong, c.1906, courtesy of US Library of Congress. What are inverters like? Inverters can be very big and hefty—especially if they have built-in battery packs so they can work in a standalone way. They also generate lots of heat, which is why they have large heat sinks (metal fins) and often cooling fans as well. As you can see from our top photo, typical ones are about as big as a car battery or car battery charger; larger units look like a bit like a bank of car batteries in a vertical stack. The smallest inverters are more portable boxes the size of a car radio that you can plug into your cigarette lighter socket to produce AC for charging laptop computers or cellphones. Just as appliances vary in the power they consume, so inverters vary in the power they produce. Typically, to be on the safe side, you'll need an inverter rated about a quarter higher than the maximum power of the appliance you want to drive. That allows for the fact that some appliances (such as fridges and freezers or fluorescent lamps) consume peak power when they're first switched on. 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Pure Sine Wave vs. Modified Sine Wave Inverters – What’s the Difference? Solar Power News & DIY Solar Tips > Inverters > Pure Sine Wave vs. Modified Sine Wave Inverters – What’s the Difference? Pure Sine Wave vs. Modified Sine Wave - What's the Difference? Amy Beaudet October 27, 2015 Inverters, Solar Powerdifference between pure sine wave and modified sine wave, modified sine wave, off grid inverter, off grid inverters, power inverter, pure sine wave, solar inverter, solar power inverter 100 Pure Sine Wave vs. Modified Sine Wave - What's the Difference?INVERTER The primary job of an inverter is to convert the DC (Direct Current) power from the battery bank or solar panels to AC (Alternating Current) power needed for most appliances. To do that, it must take the constant DC voltage and change it to a sine wave curve that goes above and below 0 volts. When inverters first came out, the most common way to do this was to make the voltage go straight up and down, creating a blocky signal. This is called modified sine wave, seen in orange in the image below. More advanced modified sine waves make multiple steps, trying to come close to a pure sine wave. DC Voltage, Modified Sine Wave, and Pure Sine Wave Graph DC Voltage, Modified Sine Wave, and Pure Sine Wave In the following images, you can see an output of a modified sine wave on an oscilloscope at the left. A Pure Sine wave is shown on the right. Other than how the signal looks, what’s the difference between the two outputs? Modified Sine Wave and Pure Sine Waves on Oscilloscope Modified Sine Wave and Pure Sine Waves on Oscilloscope A modified sine wave inverter can be used for simple systems that don’t have any delicate electronics or audio equipment that may pick up the choppy wave and produce a hum. Old tube TVs and motors with brushes are usually ok with modified sine wave. Your digital clock will likely act funky, and battery rechargers quite often just plain won’t work. Some equipment may seem to be working fine, but may run hotter than with a pure sine wave and reduce the life of it. Take heed if you’re considering buying a modified square wave inverter to shave a few bucks off your system costs. A whole raft of modern appliances won’t run as well and some not at all on this waveform: Laser printers, photocopiers, and anything with an electrical component called a thyristor Anything with a silicon-controlled rectifier (SCR), like those used in some washing machine controls A few laptop computers Some fluorescent lights with electronic ballasts Some battery chargers for cordless tools Some new furnaces and pellet heaters with microprocessor controls Digital clocks with radios Appliances having speed/microprocessor controls (like some sewing machines) X-10 home automation systems Medical equipment such as oxygen concentrators In general, because the total harmonic distortion is higher in modified square wave inverters, motors will run hotter (less efficiently, consuming up to 30% more energy than with pure sine wave inverters), and likely not last as long. Additionally, a modified square wave inverter will often cause a “buzz” to be heard from audio devices and sometimes other appliances like ceiling fans and microwave ovens. We liken using a modified sine wave inverter to running a car with square wheels versus a pure sine wave inverter like running a car with round wheels. In the first case the ride is going to be awful rough and depending on the sensitivity of the car’s occupants they may not survive the ride. PURE SINE WAVE INVERTERS ARE PREFERRED FOR MANY ELECTRONICS Pure sine wave is always needed for a grid tie system. It is generally needed for newer LED TVs, CFL light bulbs, and inductive loads like brushless motors. Clocks and audio equipment will behave much better on a pure sine wave. DIFFERENCES IN COST BETWEEN MODIFIED AND PURE SINE WAVE INVERTERS Generally, modified sine wave inverters are less expensive than a pure sine wave inverter, so they are still used in simple systems. But as technology advances, the cost of pure sine wave inverters is coming down, making them much more affordable and the favorite option. OFF-GRID INVERTERS WORKING WITH 12, 24, OR 48V BATTERY BANKS Once the charge controller has charged up the battery bank, the off-grid inverter converts the 12, 24, or 48VDC battery bank to AC voltage. The AC output depends on your requirements. In North America, most residential and business use is 120V single phase. Homes will often use 240V split phase for larger loads such as a clothes dryer, well pump, and electric stove. Commercial buildings that use a lot of power will generally have 208V or 480V 3-phase delivered to the building, and it is then broken out to 120V when sent to the outlets. Depending on how you wire the output of the inverter, and which inverter you get, you could have both 120V and 240V as an output. You need to determine what your loads require, and select and configure the inverter accordingly. Most off-grid inverters can not sell extra power back to the grid, with the exception of inverters like the Outback FXR series inverters or the Schneider XW+ inverters. However, an inverter/charger can connect to the grid (if available) to act as a battery charger. For instance, if you have a boat or RV with an inverter/charger, when you connect to shore power, you can use the AC power from the electric grid to charge your battery bank when the solar doesn’t provide enough power. But that AC connection is one-directional, it will only take from the grid, not send back. Likewise, you can often connect a generator to the AC input of an inverter/charger to top off the batteries when needed. This is a common configuration for off-grid homes that need more power in the winter than the sun can provide. When selecting an inverter, you must determine what your maximum wattage draw will be if all of your appliances that may be on at the same time, are on. If you have an 800W well pump, a 100W fridge, five 10W lights, and a 50W laptop, you need to add the wattages together to get at least a 1, 000W inverter. You also have to make sure the inverter is able to handle the surge as motors turn on. For example, if your fridge and well pump both turned on at once, the surge could be three or four times the rated wattage. You must be sure the inverter can handle that. Inverters are rated in both continuous wattage and surge. Additionally, you need to select the battery bank size and select the inverter to match. Inverter voltage is not field selectable, they are either 12V, 24V, or 48V, they cannot do all of them, just one. Battery based inverters have a lot of options to choose from. Not all of the inverters have all of the features, so you need to decide which features are required or desired, and select the inverter based on which has them. Some of the features include the ability to charge the battery bank from an AC source like the grid or a generator; even automatically starting the generator to power the built-in AC charger in the inverter to charge up the deep cycle batteries when they are low, and turning it off when they are charged. Some can automatically use the generator to assist with high loads, reducing the need to oversize the inverter for occasional heavy use. Some examples include the Schneider AGS Remote Generator Start, Magnum ME-AGS-N Automatic Generator Start, and the inverter-model-independent Morningstar’s Relay Driver and Solar Converters’ Generator Starter. Since the inverter is often installed in an out of the way location near the batteries, an inverter remote control or display in the living area is useful to keep an eye on the system. Some inverters even have the ability to monitor the system remotely via the web. This is very useful for part time locations that you are not always there to keep an eye on. Many inverters can be stacked to increase either the voltage or the current, or both. This allows you to use multiple inverters in a master/slave configuration, automatically turning on only the inverters as needed, conserving battery power, as you are not providing power to the second inverter when it is not needed.
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